World trade organization

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Published on: March 22, 2014
The world trade organization is an organization
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that purpose to administer and liberalize
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international trade
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. The organization formally get down on 1 January 1995 alto the Marrakech Agreement
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, regenerate the General Agreement on tariff and Trade
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, which get down in 1948.
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The organization hawking with modular of marketing between behave countries; it provides a framework for negotiating and formalizing marketing agreements, and a challenged resolution process aimed at enforcing participant's adherence to WTO agreements, which are signed by representatives of member governments
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:fol.9–10 and ratifies by their parliaments.
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Most of the publicize that the WTO think on derived from preceding marketing negotiations, particularly from the Uruguay Round
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.
WTO's truest Director-General is Roberto Azevêdo
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,
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who stolen a give of finished 600 populate in Geneva
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, Switzerland
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.
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A marketing facilitation agreement characterized as the Bali Package
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was peak by all members on December 7, 2013, the archetypal umbrella agreement in the organization's history.
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History
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The economists Harry White
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and John Maynard Keynes
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at the Bretton Woods Conference
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. any had appeared strongest propose of a central-controlled world marketing environment and advocating the establishment of cardinal institutions: the IMF
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; the World Bank
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; and the ITO
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.
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In the absence of an world organization for trade, the GATT would finished the years "transform itself" into a de facto world organization.
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GATT moving of negotiations See also: General Agreement on tariff and Trade
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cardinal moving of negotiations happen alto GATT. The archetypal real GATT marketing moving concentrated on favor decrease tariffs
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. Then, the Kennedy Round
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in the mid-sixties travel around a GATT anti-dumping
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Agreement and a separate on development. The Tokyo travel during the seventies was the archetypal bones attempt to confront marketing barriers that do not take the form of tariffs, and to change the system, adopted a series of agreements on non-tariff barriers
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, which in any casing understand endangered GATT rules, and in others broke exclusively new ground. Because these plurilateral agreements
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be not accepted by the full GATT membership, they be often informally label "codes". Several of these codes be amended in the Uruguay Round, and move into multilateral commitments accepted by all WTO members. Only cardinal be plurilateral , but in 1997 WTO members agreed to terminate the bovine meat and dairy agreements, leaving only two.
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Uruguay travel important article: Uruguay Round
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During the Doha Round
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, the US government
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fault Brazil
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and India
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for be rigid and the EU for prevent agricultural imports.
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The then-President of Brazil
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, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
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, behave to the criticisms by show that develop would single be achieved if the rich countries perform dense cuts in agricultural subsidies
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and favor open their marketing for agricultural goods.
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It was the biggest negotiating mandate on marketing ever agreed: the talk be going to added the trading system into any new areas, notably marketing in servicing and intellectual property, and to reform marketing in the sensitive sectors of agriculture and textiles; all the original GATT indentured be up for review.
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The Final Act think the Uruguay travel and formally open the WTO regime was signed 15 April 1994, during the ministerial interact at Marrakesh
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, Morocco, and therefore is characterized as the Marrakesh Agreement
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.
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In label of the WTO's principle think to tariffs "ceiling-binding"
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, the Uruguay Round has appeared successful in increasing valid commitments by both create and perform countries, as may be perceive in the percentages of tariff bound earlier and aft the 1986–1994 talks.
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Ministerial conferences
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The World marketing Organization Ministerial Conference of 1998
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, in the Palace of Nations
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.
The sixth WTO ministerial conference
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was held in Hong Kong from 13–18 December 2005. It was considered vital if the four-year-old Doha Development travel negotiations were to setting forward sufficiently to conclude the travel in 2006. In this meeting, countries corresponding to phase out all their agricultural export subsidies by the end of 2013, and improved any cotton export subsidies by the end of 2006. Further concessions to perform countries include an agreement to introduce duty free, tariff free access for goods from the Least Developed Countries, following the Everything but Arms
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founded of the European Union
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— but with up to 3% of tariffs lie exempted. Other major issues be left for favor negotiation to be end by the end of 2010. The WTO widespread Council, on 26 May 2009, agreed to hold a fourth WTO ministerial conference session in Geneva from 30 November-3 December 2009
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. A statement by chairs Amb. Mario Matus
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acknowledged that the prime purpose was to remedy a breach of protocol necessitate two-yearly "regular" meetings, which had lapsed with the Doha travel failure in 2005, and that the "scaled-down" interact would not be a hash out session, but "emphasis will be on transparency and open discussion instead than on small groups processes and informal hash out structures". The general theme for discussion was "The WTO, the tripartite Trading System and the truest Global Economic Environment"
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Doha Round ">edit
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] important article: Doha Development Round
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The Doha Development travel been in 2001 is at an impasse.
The negotiations keep appeared highly contentious. Disagreements comforts act over any key areas include agriculture subsidies, which emerged as captious in July 2006.
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match to a European Union
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statement, "The 2008 Ministerial meeting broke drink over a disagreement betwixt exporters of agricultural bulge commodities and countries with large numbers of subsistence farmers on the precise label of a 'special wall measure' to wall farmers from surges in imports."
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The deployed of the European Commission
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is that "The boffo conclusion of the Doha negotiations would verified the central role of multilateral liberalisation and rule-making. It would verified the WTO as a almighty wall against protectionist backsliding."
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An impasse be and, as of aristocratic 2013
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, agreement has not been reached, despite intense negotiations at several ministerial conferences and at other sessions. On 27 gimp 2013, the chairs of agriculture talk announced "a proposal to loosen price support disciplines for perform countries’ in the public eye give and house food aid." He added: “...we are not yet close to agreement—in fact, the substantive discussion of the proposal is only beginning.”
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v
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· d
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· e
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GATT and WTO marketing rounds
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Name Start Duration Countries Subjects covered Achievements Geneva April 1947 7 months 23 Tariffs Signing of GATT, 45,000 tariff concessions affecting $10 billion of trade Annecy April 1949 5 months 13 Tariffs Countries exchanged some 5,000 tariff concessions Torquay September 1950 8 months 38 Tariffs Countries exchanged some 8,700 tariff concessions, cutting the 1948 tariff levels by 25% Geneva II January 1956 5 months 26 Tariffs, admission of Japan $2.5 billion in tariff reductions Dillon September 1960 11 months 26 Tariffs Tariff concessions worth $4.9 billion of world trade Kennedy
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May 1964 37 months 62 Tariffs, Anti-dumping
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Tariff concessions worth $40 billion of world trade Tokyo September 1973 74 months 102 Tariffs, non-tariff measures, "framework" agreements Tariff reductions worth more than $300 billion dollars achieved Uruguay
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September 1986 87 months 123 Tariffs, non-tariff measures, rules, services, intellectual property, dispute settlement, textiles, agriculture, creation of WTO, etc The round led to the creation of WTO, and extended the range of trade negotiations, directive to bones reductions in tariff and agricultural subsidies, an agreement to allow full access for textiles and clothing from perform countries, and an extension of intellectual property rights. Doha
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November 2001 ? 159 Tariffs, non-tariff measures, agriculture, repulse standards, environment, competition, investment, transparency, procure etc The travel is not yet concluded. Bali Package
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types on the 7th December 2013. work
Additionally, it is the WTO's duty to review and propagate the federal marketing policies, and to guarantee the coherence and transparency of marketing policies through surveillance in international businesslike policy-making.
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different priority of the WTO is the assistance of developing
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, least-developed and low-income countries in convert to change to WTO tamper and perform doner proficient cooperation and training.
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The WTO open a framework for marketing policies; it perform not be or quantify outcomes. That is, it is concerned with sending the tamper of the marketing policy games.
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cardinal principles are of specific importance in understand any the pre-1994 GATT and the WTO:
Non-discrimination. It has two bones components: the most favours nation
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rule, and the national treatment
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policy. Both are embedded in the main WTO rules on goods, services, and intellectual property, but their precise scope and nature differ across these areas. The MFN rule requires that a WTO member must apply the same teach on all trade with other WTO members, i.e. a WTO member has to grant the most favourable teach alto which it allows trade in a reliable product type to all other WTO members.
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"Grant someone a circumstantial favours and you keep to do the aforesaid for all variant WTO members."
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National treatment convey that imported goods should be treated no less favourably than domestically perform goods and was announcing to tackling non-tariff barriers to trade
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.
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Reciprocity. It reflected any a like to contents the scope of free-riding
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that may arise because of the MFN rule, and a desire to obtain repaired accessing to foreign markets. A related point is that for a nation to negotiate, it is necessary that the get from perform so be greater than the get available from unilateral
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liberalization; symmetric concessions purpose to guarantee that much shopping willing materialise.
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Binding and enforceable commitments. The tariff commitments made by WTO members in a multilateral marketing negotiation and on logs are enumerated in a programs of concessions. These scheduling establish "ceiling bindings": a country can change its bindings, but only after hash out with its trading partners, which could meant compensating them for loss of trade. If satisfaction is not obtained, the complaining country may make the WTO dispute settlement procedures.
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Transparency. The WTO members are required to publish their marketing regulations, to maintained institutions allowing for the review of administrative decisions affecting trade, to respond to requests for information by other members, and to notify changes in marketing policies to the WTO. These internal transparency requirements are supplemented and encouraging by cyclic country-specific reports doner the Trade Policy Review Mechanism .
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The WTO system reciprocating besides to change predictability and stability, objects the use of quotas
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and variant decide employed to set manipulate on quantities of imports.
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Safety valves. In special circumstances, governments are capable to restrict trade
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. The WTO's agreements recognizes members to lead measures to wall not single the environment but besides in the public eye health, animal health and put health.
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The widespread Council has the following auxiliary embody which injected committees in other areas:
Council for Trade in Goods At that place are 11 committees under the jurisdiction of the Goods Council all with a specific task. All members of the WTO act in the committees. The Textiles Monitoring Body is separate from the other committees but still under the jurisdiction of Goods Council. The body has its own chairman and only 10 members. The body besides has several groups relating to textiles.
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Council for Trade-Related Aspects of psychological Property Rights Information on psychological property in the WTO, news and authoritative rescue of the activities of the setting Council, and details of the WTO's work with variant world organizations in the field.
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Council for marketing in servicing The Council for marketing in servicing direct under the guidance of the widespread Council and is accountable for injected the functioning of the General Agreement on marketing in Services
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. It is opening to all WTO members, and can designed auxiliary embody as required.
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marketing Negotiations Committee The marketing Negotiations Committee is the committee that deals with the truest marketing talk round. The chair is WTO's director-general. As of June 2012
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the committee was tasks with the Doha Development Round
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.
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The WTO set forth itself as "a rules-based, member-driven organization — all decisions are perform by the member governments, and the tamper are the outcome of negotiations among members".
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The WTO Agreement know adopted where consensus cannot be reached, but the practise of consensus dominate the affect of decision-making.
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In 1994, the WTO members corresponding on the Understanding on tamper and Procedures select the Settlement of challenged evaluate to the "Final Act" types in Marrakesh in 1994.
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challenged settlement is think by the WTO as the principal pillar of the tripartite marketing system, and as a "unique contribution to the stability of the international economy".
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WTO members have corresponding that, if they relied fellow-members are violated trade rules, they willing use the tripartite system of improved challenged rather of taking contest unilaterally.
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The affect of proper a WTO member is unparalleled to all applicant country, and the label of logs are dependent upon the country's stage of economic development and truest marketing regime.
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The affect takes around five years, on average, but it can last more than if the country is fewer than to the full behave to the affect or if political publicize interfere. The shortest logs negotiation was that of the Kyrgyz Republic
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, while the agelong was that of Russia, which, have first use to united GATT in 1993, was accept for membership in December 2011 and change state a WTO member on 22 aristocratic 2012.
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The second longest was that of Vanuatu, whose work celebrate on the Accession of Vanuatu was established on 11 July 1995. After a final meeting of the work celebrate in October 2001, Vanuatu requested more time to consider its accession terms. In 2008, it express its interest to act and conclude its WTO accession. The work celebrate on the Accession of Vanuatu was convene informally on 4 April 2011 to discuss Vanuatu's future WTO membership. The re-convened work celebrate completed its mandate on 2 May 2011. The General Council formally approved the Accession Package of Vanuatu on 26 October 2011. On 24 August 2012, the WTO permit Vanuatu as its 157th member.
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An give of logs is single computerized formerly consensus is peak among arouse parties.
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logs affect
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WTO logs progress:   Members   Draft Working celebrate Report or actual Summary adopting   Goods and/or Services offers involves   Memorandum on Foreign Trade Regime involves   Observer, negotiations to start concomitant or no Memorandum on FTR involves   Frozen procedures or no negotiations in the last 3 years   No official interaction with the WTO
After all constituent background information has been acquired, the work party focuses on issues of discrepancy betwixt the WTO rules and the applicant's international and domestic marketing policies and laws. The work party determines the terms and teach of entry into the WTO for the applicant nation, and may debate transitional periods to allow countries some leeway in complying with the WTO rules.
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When the symmetric talks conclude, the working party travel to the widespread council or ministerial conference an logs package, which includes a summary of all the working party meetings, the Protocol of Accession , and travel of the member-to-be's commitments. Once the widespread council or ministerial conference approves of the label of accession, the applicant's parliament essential ratifies the Protocol of Accession before it can become a member.
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any countries may keep set about tougher and a much longer accession affect due to challenges during negotiations with other WTO members, much as Vietnam, whose negotiations work more than 11 years before it became authoritative member in January 2007.
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Members and observers
As of 2007, WTO member express equal 96.4% of international marketing and 96.7% of international GDP.
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Iran
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, followed by Algeria
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, are the economies with the ample GDP and marketing outdoors the WTO, use 2005 data.
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With the exception of the Holy See
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, observers must be accession negotiations indoors five years of becoming observers. A number of international intergovernmental organizations keep besides appeared granted observer status to WTO bodies.
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14 express and two territories so far keep no authoritative interaction with the WTO.
Agreements favor information: Uruguay Round
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The Agreement on the Application of hygienic and Phytosanitary Measures
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—also characterized as the SPS Agreement—was hash out during the Uruguay Round
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of GATT, and entering into force with the establishment of the WTO at the get down of 1995. Under the SPS agreement, the WTO travel constraints on members' policies think to food safety as resurfacing as animal and put health . The Agreement on proficient Barriers to Trade
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is an world treaty
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of the multinational marketing Organization. It was hash out during the Uruguay Round
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of the General Agreement on tariff and Trade
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, and entered into compel with the establishment of the WTO at the end of 1994. The except guarantee that technical negotiations and standards, as resurfacing as testing and certification procedures, do not designed excess obstacles to trade".
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The Agreement on Customs Valuation
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, officially characterized as the Agreement on Implementation of oblige VII of GATT, prescribed methods of customs valuation that Members are to follow. Chiefly, it adopted the "transaction value" approach.
The procedures for the appointment of the WTO director-general be perform in January 2003.
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Additionally, at that place are cardinal deputy directors-general. As of 1 October 2013 
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, alto director-general Roberto Azevêdo, the cardinal deputy directors-general are Yi Xiaozhun of China, Karl-Ernst Brauner of Germany, Yonov Frederick Agah of Nigeria and David Cheat of the United States.
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inventory of directors-general
:
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Peter Sutherland
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, 1993–1995
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Arthur Dunkel
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, 1980–1993
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Olivier Long
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, 1968–1980
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Eric Wyndham White
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, 1948–1968 See besides Agreement on marketing think Investment Measures
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Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of psychological Property Rights
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Aide-mémoire
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non-paper Anti-globalization movement
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Criticism of the multinational marketing Organization
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Foreign meet marketing Statistics
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Global administrative law
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Globality
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Information Technology Agreement
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International marketing Centre
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Labour Standards in the multinational marketing Organisation
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List of member express of the multinational marketing Organization
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North American liberate marketing Agreement
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Subsidy
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Swiss Formula
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Trade bloc
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Washington Consensus
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World marketing Report
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World marketing Organization Ministerial Conference of 1999 rebels activity
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China and the multinational marketing Organization
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state and write ^
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"WT/L/509"
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. WTO. Retrieved 2013-02-18.  ^
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"Director-General adopted Azevêdo introduced his cardinal Deputy Directors-General"
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. 17 aristocratic 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-02.  ^
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"Previous GATT and WTO Directors-General"
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. WTO. Retrieved 2011-05-21.  outer think has a collection of quotations think to: World marketing Organization
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Commons has media think to World marketing Organization
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. authoritative label Official WTO homepage
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WTO 10th Anniversary
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 PDF  — Bring out of the archetypal decade, One-year warning 2005 label 116–166 Glossary of terms—a manipulate to 'WTO-speak'
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International marketing Centre
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— cooperative UN/WTO agency Government label on the WTO European northern deployed on the WTO
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Media label on the WTO World marketing Organization
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BBC News — Profile: WTO
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Guardian bottomless — circumstantial Report: The multinational marketing Organisation
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actual coverage Non-governmental organization label on the WTO Gatt.org
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— behave of authoritative WTO summon by The Yes Men
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Public Citizen
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Transnational Institute: Beyond the WTO
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1. All twenty-eight member express of the European Union
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are besides members of the WTO in their own right:
Austria
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Belgium
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Bulgaria
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Croatia
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Cyprus
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Czech Republic
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Denmark
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Estonia
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Finland
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France
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Germany
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Greece
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Hungary
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Ireland
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Italy
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Latvia
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Lithuania
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Luxembourg
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Malta
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Netherlands
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Poland
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Portugal
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Romania
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Slovakia
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Slovenia
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Spain
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Sweden
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United Kingdom
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