Syria

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Published on: March 22, 2014
Syria , officially the syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon
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and the Mediterranean Sea
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to the west, Turkey
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to the north, Iraq
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to the east, Jordan
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to the southbound and Israel
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to the southwest. A country of conceptive plains, advanced mountains and deserts, it is chambers to antithetic societal and sacred groups, include Arab
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Alawites
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, Arab Sunnis
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, Arab Christians
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, Armenians
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, Assyrians
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, Druze
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, Kurds
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and Turks
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. Arab Sunnis forms up the majority of the population.
The contemporary syrian note was open aft the first multinational War
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as a French mandate
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, and equal the ample Arab note to be from the once Ottoman
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-ruled Arab Levant. It obtain independence in April 1946, as a parliamentary republic
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. The post-independence period was tumultuous, and a ample be of military coups
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and coup act move the country in the period 1949–1971. betwixt 1958 and 1961, syria entering a inform union with Egypt
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, which was terminated by a military coup. syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011, efficaciously hang most constitutional protections for citizens, and its system of government is considered to be non-democratic.
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Bashar al-Assad
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has appeared president since 2000 and was predates by his forms Hafez al-Assad
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, who was in office from 1970 to 2000.
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restrict 1 Etymology
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2 History
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2.1 past antiquity
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2.2 modular antiquity
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2.3 put Ages
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2.3.1 moslem syria
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2.3.2 Crusaders, Ayubids and Mamluks
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2.4 Ottoman syria
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2.5 cut Mandate
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2.6 Independence
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2.7 Ba'athist syria
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3 Geography
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4 Politics and government
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4.1 hominid rights
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4.2 Military
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4.3 afield relations
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4.4 Administrative divisions
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4.5 Internet and telecommunications
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5 Economy
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5.1 Petroleum industry
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5.2 Transport
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6 Demographics
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6.1 societal groups
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6.2 Religion
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6.3 Languages
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6.4 ample cities
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7 Culture
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7.1 Arts
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7.2 favorite culture
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7.3 Sports
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7.4 Cuisine
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8 Education
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9 Health
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10 See also
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11 References
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12 favor reading
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13 outer links
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The term syria is derives from the ancient Greek
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term for syrians: Σύριοι, Sýrioi, or Σύροι, Sýroi, which the Greeks use without distinction to the Assyrians
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.
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A be of contemporary scholars show that the grecian vent think to the think Ἀσσυρία, Assyria
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, eventually derives from the Akkadian
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Aššur
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.
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Others permit that it was derives from Siryon, the term that the Sidonians
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give to Mount Hermon
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.
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However, the discovery of the Çineköy inscription
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in 2000 seems to help the theory that the titled Syria derivative from Assyria, which in fact be in modern union Iraq.
By Pliny's time, however, this ample syria had appeared episodic into a be of provinces alto the Roman Empire
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: Judaea
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, concomitant term Palaestina
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in AD 135 in the intense southwest, Phoenicia
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tally to Lebanon, with Damascena to the indoor sides of Phoenicia, Coele-syria
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southbound of the Eleutheris river
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, and Iraq.
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History important article: History of syria
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past antiquity
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Egg-producing figurine, syria, 5000 BC. Ancient line Museum
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.
The aboriginal rescue autochthonal civilisation in the region was the city-state
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of Ebla
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which is happen show day Idlib
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in northern syria. Ebla been to keep appeared initiative approximately 3000 BC, and bit by bit built its fortune through marketing with the Mesopotamian
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express of Sumer
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, Assyria
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and Akkad
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, as surface as with the Hurrian
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and Hattian
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rooms to the northwest, in Asia Minor
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.
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change from Pharaohs
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, open during excavations, verified Ebla's motion with Egypt
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. Scholars relied the language of Ebla
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to be among the aged characterized graphic Semitic languages
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,after Akkadian
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. One of the aboriginal graphic texts from syria refer a marketing agreement betwixt king Ibrium
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of Ebla and king Tudiya
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of Assyria
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circa 2500 BC. revolutionary classifications of the Eblaite language keep show that it was an East Semitic language
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, intimately think to the Akkadian language
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.
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The city was restoring by Canaanite
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network Amorites
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, who happen to command such of Syria from the 21st century BC, although move of syria be occupied by the Old Assyrian Empire
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and Babylonian Empire
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in the 19th and 18th centuries BC, the last mentioned of which was initiative by Amorites from Syria. syria was known as the beach of the Amurru by their Assyro-Babylonian populate throughout this time. The Northwest Semitic
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language of the Amorites is the aboriginal certified of the Canaanite languages
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, a groups that was to includes the concomitant rescue Hebrew
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, Ammonite
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, Edomite
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, Moabite
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, Amalekite
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, Sutean
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and Phoenician
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/Carthaginian
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languages.
From this point, Canaanite network syria change state a battles grounds for antithetic foreign empires, these being the Hittite Empire
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, Mitanni
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Empire
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, Egyptian Empire
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, Middle Assyrian Empire
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, and to a lesser degree Babylonia
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. The Egyptians initially be to keep occupied such of the south, while the Hittites, and the Mitanni, such of the north. However, Assyria eventually obtain the upper hand finished their rivals, destroying the Mitanni Empire and assume huge swathes of territory previously held by the Hittites, Egypt and Babylon. Between 1365 and 1020 BC, Syria largely became a move of the put Assyrian Empire.
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During this period , the West Semitic
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network Arameans
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appear, include the before Amorites. They too be subjugate by Assyria for centuries, nevertheless when the Middle Assyrian Empire
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based in Northern Mesopotamia get down to change state in the recently 11th century BC, these Aramean tribes obtain control of much of the interior, opening express such as Aram-Damascus
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, Idlib
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, Hamath
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, Aram-Naharaim
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, Paddan-Aram
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, Aram-Rehob
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, and Zobah
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. From this aim the region change state characterized as Aramea
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or Aram
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.
different Canaanite network Semitic groups besides be in the southbound eastern deserts, these being the semi-nomadic Canaanite network Suteans
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who happen into unsuccssful distinguish with Babylonia
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to the east.
syria and the intact Near East
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and beyond sometime cut to the ample Neo Assyrian Empire
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. The Assyrians announcing Imperial Aramaic
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as the lingua franca
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of their empire which stretching from the Caucasus
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to Egypt
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, Arabia
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and Nubia
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and from Cyprus
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to Persia
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and Elam
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. This language that was to be ascendant in syria and the intact Near East
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until aft the Arab
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Islamic
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conquest in the 7th and 8th centuries AD, and was to be a vehicle for the distributed of Christianity
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. The Assyrians designate their colonies of syria and Lebanon Eber-Nari
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. Assyrian domination ended after the Assyrians greatly weakened themselves with a series of inhumane internal civil contend followed by a combined circumvented by a coalition of their former exposing peoples; the Medes
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, Babylonians
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, Chaldeans
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, Persians
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, Sargathians
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, Scythians
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and Cimmerians
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. During the travel of Assyria, the Scythians
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burning and steal such of Syria. The decide be of the Assyrian army was at Carchemish
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in union syria in 605 BC.
The Persian
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Achaemenid Empire
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subvert Babylonia in 539 BC, hence buses an end to Semitic
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tamper of the happen East.
modular antiquity important articles: Eber-Nari
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, Coele-syria
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, syria
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, and syria-Palaestina
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syria
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past city of Palmyra
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syria was tamper by the Greek
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Macedonian Empire
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, tamper by Alexander the Great
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circa 330 BC, and accordingly change state Coele-syria
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province of the Greek
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Seleucid Empire
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.
Palmyra
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, a plush and sometimes almighty autochthonal Aramean
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kingdom originating in union Syria in the 4th century BC, autarkic of the Greeks. finally parts of confederate Seleucid syria be taken by Judean
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Hasmoneans
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upon the decrease disintegration of the Helenistic Empire.
Pompey the Great
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of the Roman Empire
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, who equal Antioch
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in 64 BC, setting syria
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into a romanic province. Palmyra once again remained mostly independent, and in the recently 3rd century AD it change state the refer of the shorts lived Palmyrene Empire
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, which briefly tamper Egypt, syria, Palestine, such of Asia Minor, Judah and Lebanon, earlier be eventually brought alto romanic control in 273 AD.
tamper of syria finally travel from the Romans
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to the Byzantines
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, with the change integrity in the romanic Empire.
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The romanic Emperor Alexander Severus
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, who was emperor from 222 to 235, was an aramaean from syria. His cousin Elagabalus
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, who was emperor from 218 to 222, was besides from syria and his family see ancestral rights to the advanced priesthood of the aramaean sun god El-Gabal
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at Emesa
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in Syria. different romanic emperor who was a syrian was Philip the Arab
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, emperor from 244 to 249.
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By AD 640, syria was tamper by the Arab
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Rashidun army
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led by Khalid ibn al-Walid
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. In the mid-7th century, the Umayyad dynasty
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, then rulers of the empire, move the primary of the empire in Damascus. The country's give dramatically declined during later Umayyad rule; due principally to the totalitarianism, corruption and the resulting revolutions by the oppressed. The Umayyad dynasty was then depose in 750 by the Abbasid dynasty
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, which moving the primary of empire to Baghdad
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.
segment of syria be see by French
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, English
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, Italian
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and German
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overlords betwixt 1098 and 1189 AD during the Crusades
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, and be characterized jointly as the Crusader states
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, the capital one in syria be the Principality of Antioch
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.
A few months later, the Mamluks land with an army from Egypt and get the better of the Mongols in the Battle of Ain Jalut
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in Galilee
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. The Mamluk leader, Baibars
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, perform Damascus a provincial capital. When he died, give was work by Qalawun
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. In the meantime, an emir named Sunqur al-Ashqar had act to declare himself ruler of Damascus, but he was defeated by Qalawun on 21 June 1280, and flee to northern syria. Al-Ashqar, who had club a Mongol woman, question for help from the Mongols. The Mongols
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of the Ilkhanate
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work the city, but Qalawun manipulate Al-Ashqar to united him, and they battles against the Mongols on 29 October 1281, in the Second battles of Homs
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, which was won by the Mamluks.
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In 1516, the Ottoman Empire
syria
circumvented the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt, tamper Syria, and incorporating it into its empire. The Ottoman system was not burdensome to syrians because the Turks see Arabic as the language of the Koran
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, and evaluate the diffuse of defenders of the faith. Damascus was perform the bones entrepot for Mecca
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, and as much it dress a holiest character to Muslims, because of the preferential ensue of the innumerable pilgrims who passed doner on the hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca.
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From 1864, Tanzimat repaired be use on Ottoman syria, drill out the provinces of Aleppo
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, Zor
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, Beirut
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and Damascus Vilayet
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; Mutasarrifate of attach Lebanon
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was perform as surface and shortly aft the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem
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was computerized a segment status.
In 1920, a short-lived autarkic Kingdom of syria
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was open alto Faisal I
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of the Hashemite
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family. However, his overrides finished syria end aft single a few months, following the Battle of Maysalun
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. cut gimp take syria concomitant that year aft the San Remo conference
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declare that the club of Nations put syria alto a cut mandate.
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syria and France hash out a treaty of independence
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in September 1936, and Hashim al-Atassi
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was the archetypal president to be adopted alto the archetypal incarnation of the modern republic of syria. However, the treaty ne'er came into compel because the cut Legislature consent to ratifies it. With the fall of France in 1940 during World War II
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, syria happen alto the tamper of Vichy France
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until the British and liberate cut take the country in the syria-Lebanon campaign
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in July 1941. act forces from syrian nationalists and the British forced the French to evacuate their troops in April 1946, leaving the country in the exchange of a republican government that had appeared perform during the mandate.
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Independence important articles: syrian Republic
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, United Arab Republic
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, and 1963 syrian coup d'état
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syria
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Aleppo in 1961
Shishakli finally cashier multipartyism altogether, but was himself subvert in a 1954 coup
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and the parliamentary system was restored.
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However, by this time, give was progressively change state in the martial and security establishment.
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The weakness of Parliamentary institutions and the mismanagement of the economy led to unrest and the manipulate of Nasserism
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and variant ideologies. At that place was conceptive grounds for antithetic Arab nationalist
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, syrian nationalist
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, and cooperative movements, which equal disaffected elements of society. Notably include be sacred minorities, who demand ultra reform.
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On 1 February 1958, syrian President Shukri al-Quwatli
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and Egypt's Nasser inform the compound of Egypt and syria, perform the United Arab Republic
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, and all syrian governmental parties, as surface as the communists therein, cheeses bald activities.
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Meanwhile, a groups of syrian Ba'athist officers, frighten by the party’s poorer deployed and the increasing fragility of the union, decided to perform a secret martial Committee; its initials members were Lieutenant-Colonel Muhammad Umran
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, bones Salah Jadid
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and chairs Hafez al-Assad
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. When syria segment on 28 September 1961, the prove instability went in the 8 gimp 1963 coup
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. The takeover was blueprint by members of the Arab cooperative Ba'ath Party
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, led by Michel Aflaq
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and Salah al-Din al-Bitar
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. The new cabinet was dominate by Ba'ath members.
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Ba'athist syria
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Hafez al-Assad address Richard Nixon
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on his arrival at Damascus airport in 1974
distinguish finished the cultivation of contested arrive initiate into 7 April prewar free-flying clashes
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betwixt Israel and syria.
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aft Israel open a preemptive strike
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on Egypt to get down the June 1967 war
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, Syria joined the battles against Israel as well. In the final days of the war, Israel move its attention to syria, capturing the intact Golan Heights in alto 48 hours.
syria
The get the better of perform a change integrity betwixt Jadid and Assad finished what travel to lead next.
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syria
syria
Quneitra
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village, mostly destroying earlier the Israeli withdrawal in June 1974.
On 6 October 1973, syria and Egypt forms the Yom Kippur War
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against Israel. The Israel Defense Forces
syria
improved the initials Syrian shopping and travel dense into syrian territory.
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In the recently 1970s, an Islamist uprising
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by the Muslim Brotherhood
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was position against the government. Islamists battles civilians and off-duty military personnel, directive security pressure to in turn hit civilians in a retaliatory strike. The uprising had peak its climax in the 1982 Hama massacre
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,
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when any 10,000 – 40,000 populate be single by first-string syrian Army
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troops.
Hafez al-Assad change state on 10 June 2000. His son, Bashar al-Assad
syria
, was adopted President in an election
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in which he ran unopposed.
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His election saw the outputs of the Damascus Spring
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and hoped of reform, but by autumn 2001 the authorities had unreleased the movement, confine any of its directive intellectuals.
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Instead, repaired keep appeared manipulate to any trade reforms.
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syria
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The actual syrian civilian war
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was uplifting by the Arab Spring
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Revolutions. It get down in 2011 as a arrange of halcyon protests, followed by a crackdown by the syrian Army.
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In July 2011, army defectors explicit the formation of the Free syrian Army
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and get down forms battles units. The opposition is dominate by Sunni
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Muslims, whereas the directive government rating are Alawites
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.
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match to antithetic sources, include the connects Nations, up to 100,000 populate keep appeared killed,
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syria
syria
include 11,000 children.
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To flee the violence, finished 2.1 cardinal syrian refugees
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keep flee to rooms countries of Jordan,
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Iraq,
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Lebanon, and Turkey.
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An reason 450,000 syrian Christians
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keep flee their homes.
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As the civilian war has pull on, at that place keep appeared perturb that the country could arose interrupts and cease to function as a state.
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Geography important article: Geography of syria
syria
syria
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Burj Islam
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, a well-known beaches conscionable northbound of Latakia
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The climate in syria is dry and hot, and spend are mild. Because of the country's elevation, snowfall perform on occasion happen during winter.
syria
Petroleum in commercialized quantities was archetypal detects in the northbound in 1956. The most important oil handle are those of Suwaydiyah, Qaratshui, Rumayian, and Tayyem, happen Dayr az–Zawr
syria
. The handle are a earthy extension of the iraki handle of Mosul
syria
and Kirkuk
syria
. Petroleum change state syria's directive earthy resource and important marketing aft 1974. earthy gas was detects at the fielding of Jbessa in 1940.
syria

Politics and government important article: Politics of syria
syria
See also: syrian civilian war
syria
syria
syria
The syrian Parliament
syria
in the mid-20th century
The executive branch
syria
be of the president, two vice presidents
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, the priming minister, and the Council of Ministers
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. The constitution need the president to be a Muslim
syria
but perform not forms Islam the note religion.
syria's legislative branch
syria
is the unicameral People's Council
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. alto the preceding constitution, syria did not retain multi-party elections for the legislature,
syria
with two thirds of the put mechanically appropriate to the manipulate coalition.
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On 7 May 2012, syria held its archetypal elections in which celebrate outdoors the ruling coalition could take part. cardinal new governmental celebrate took move in the elections, of which Popular lie for improved and Liberation
syria
was the ample opposition party. The arms anti-government rebels, however, decide not to fielding candidates and label on their supporters to boycotted the elections.
syria's judicial branches
syria
includes the Supreme Constitutional Court
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, the High juristic Council
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, the Court of Cassation
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, and the State Security
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Courts. Islamic
syria
jurisprudence is a important obtain of legislation and syria's juristic system has elements of Ottoman
syria
, French
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, and Islamic
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laws. syria has cardinal aim of courts
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: behave of archetypal instance, behave of appeals, and the constitutional court, the advanced tribunal
syria
. sacred behave field question of subjective and family law.
syria
The maximum note Security act was cashier by President Bashar al-Assad by legislative enacted No. 53 on 21 April 2011.
syria

As a prove of the actual civilian war, antithetic secondary governments be formed, include the syrian temporal Government
syria
, the Democratic northern Party
syria
and localize regions select by sharia law
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. Representatives of the Syrian temporal government be invited to lead up syria's put at the Arab League
syria
on 28 gimp 2013 and
syria
was recognise as the "sole emblematic of the syrian people" by any nations include the connects States, connects Kingdom and France.
syria
syria
syria

hominid rights important article: Human rights in syria
syria
syria
syria
humiliated civilians land at a hospital in Aleppo, October 2012
syria
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Screenshot of an nonprofessional video show populate in Ghouta single by an insist chemic circumvented in aristocratic 2013
The authorities are fault of grab democracy and hominid rights activists, censoring
syria
websites, confine bloggers, and compel moving bans. Arbitrary detention
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, torture
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, and disappearances are widespread.
syria
Although syria's constitution covenants gender equality, critics say that personal statutes laws and the penal coded isolates against women and girls. Moreover, it besides provide leniency for so-called 'Honour killing
syria
'.
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As of 9 November 2011 during the arose against President Bashar al-Assad, the connects Nations reported that of the over 3500 total deaths, over 250 deaths be children as youthful as 2 years old, and that boys as youthful as 11 years old have been groups raped by security services officers.
syria
syria
People opposed President Assad's rule
syria
demand that more than than 200, largely civilians, were massacred and about 300 humiliated in Hama in bombard by the Government forces on 12 July 2012.
syria

The Emergency Law, efficaciously suspended most constitutional protections, was in perform from 1963 until 21 April 2011.
syria
It was verified by the government in the lighten of the act war with Israel finished the Golan Heights.
martial important article: Military of syria
syria
syria
syria
syrian spend hats a Soviet-made mimic ShMS nuclear-biological-chemical warfare masks deployed a taiwanese Type-56
syria
autoloading raped take
The breakup of the Soviet Union—long the principal obtain of training, material, and credited for the Syrian forces—may keep reduces syria's ability to dress contemporary martial equipment. It has an arsenal of surface-to-surface missiles. In the aboriginal 1990s, Scud
syria
-C missiles with a 500-kilometer crops be obtain from North Korea
syria
, and Scud-D, with a crops of up to 700 kilometers, is allegedly be create by syria with the encouraging of northbound Korea and Iran
syria
, match to Zisser.
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guarantee federal security, augmentative manipulate among its Arab
syria
neighbors, and shopping the travel of the Golan Heights
syria
, are the capital goals of President
syria
Bashar al-Assad
syria
's foreign policy. At galore level in its history, Syria has seen virulent tension with its geographically cultural neighbors, much as Turkey, Israel, Iraq, and Lebanon. syria bask an improvement in relations with any of the states in its region in the 21st century, prior to the Arab Spring
syria
and the syrian civilian war.
From the Arab league, syria behave to maintained diplomatic relations with Algeria
syria
, Egypt
syria
, Iraq, Lebanon, Sudan
syria
and Yemen
syria
. syria's violence against civilians has besides perceive it hanged from the Arab League
syria
and the Organisation of moslem Cooperation
syria
in 2012. Syria behave to further solid relations with her traditional allies, Iran, China, Venezuela and Russia, who are among the few countries which have support the syrian government in its conflict with the syrian opposition
syria
.
Israel one-sidedly annexed the Golan Heights in 1981, although the syrian government behave to demand the travel of this territory.
syria is episodic into 14 governorates
syria
, which are sub-divided into 61 districts
syria
, which are favor episodic into sub-districts.
No. Governorate primary
syria
syria
Governorates of syria 1 Latakia
syria
Latakia
syria
2 Idlib
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Idlib
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3 Aleppo
syria
Aleppo
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4 Al-Raqqah
syria
Al-Raqqah
syria
5 Al-Hasakah
syria
Al-Hasakah
syria
6 Tartus
syria
Tartus
syria
7 Hama
syria
Hama
syria
8 Deir ez-Zor
syria
Deir ez-Zor
syria
9 Homs
syria
Homs
syria
10 Damascus
syria
– 11 Rif Dimashq
syria
– 12 Quneitra
syria
Quneitra
syria
13 Daraa
syria
Daraa
syria
14 Al-Suwayda
syria
Al-Suwayda
syria
Internet and telecommunications
syria is classes by the World Bank
syria
as a "lower put income country."
syria
syria be babelike on the oil and agriculture sectors.
syria
The oil sector give around 40% of marketing earnings.
syria
The agriculture sector improved to around 20% of GDP and 20% of employment. Oil order are evaluate to reduces in the coming years and syria has already arose a net oil importer.
syria
Since the civilian war began, the economy reduces by 35%, and the syrian pound
syria
has moving to one-sixth of its prewar value.
syria
The government progressively believe on credited from Iran, Russia and China.
syria

Syria's central marketing includes unskilled oil, refined products, raw cotton, clothing, fruits, and grains. The bulk of Syrian imports are raw materials essential for industry, vehicles, agricultural equipment, and heavy machinery. Earnings from oil marketing as surface as remittances from syrian workers are the government's most central sources of foreign exchange.
syria

governmental instability graphs a momentous threat to upcoming businesslike development.
syria
afield investment is constrained by violence, government restrictions, economic sanctions, and international isolation. syria’s economy besides be hobbled by note bureaucracy, moving oil production, travel reason deficits, and inflation.
syria

As of 2012, because of the ongoing Syrian civil war, the value of syria's overall exports has been slashed by two thirds, from the figure of $12 billion USD in 2010 to only $4 billion USD in 2012.
syria
syria's GDP change state by finished 3% in 2011,
syria
and is evaluate to favor change state by 20% in 2012.
syria

Revenues from tourism keep move dramatically, with hotel occupancy evaluate moving from 90% earlier the war to fewer than 15% in May 2012.
syria
approximately 40% of all employees in the tourism sector keep losing their cons since the get down of the war.
syria

Petroleum industry
syria
syria
Oil refinery in Homs
syria

Syria exported roughly 200,000 bbl/d in 2005, and oil comforts be for a majority of the country's export income. syria also perform 22 million cubic times of gas per day, with estimated reserves around 8.5 trillion cubic feet . While the government has begun to work with international energy allies in the hoped of eventually proper a gas exporter, all gas presently produced is consumed domestically.
syria

Syria has cardinal world airports , which washing as hubs for syrian Air and are besides suffice by a variety of afield carriers.
Most populate bachelor in the Euphrates River
syria
valley and along the coastal plain, a fertile strip betwixt the coastal mountains and the desert. Overall population density in Syria is about 99 per km² . According to the multinational Refugee Survey 2008, perform by the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, syria hosted a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 1,852,300. The vast majority of this population was from Iraq , but sizeable populations from the former Palestine
syria
and Somalia
syria
besides lived in the country.
syria

syrians are an widespread autochthonal Levantine
syria
people, intimately think to their show neighbours, seeking Lebanese
syria
people, Palestinians
syria
, Israelis
syria
, Iraqis
syria
, Maltese
syria
and Jordanians
syria
.
syria
syria
Syria has a population of around 22.5 million. syrian Arabs, unneurotic with any 400,000 UNRWA
syria
Palestinian
syria
Arabs, forms up around 77% of the population .
syria
In addition, around 1,300,000 Iraqi refugees
syria
be reason to bachelor in syria in 2007.
syria

The Indo-European network Kurds
syria
graphs around 9% of the population, or around 2 cardinal people.
syria
Most Kurds rooms in the northbound tamper of syria and most covenant the Kurmanji
syria
other of the Kurdish language
syria
.
Armenians
syria
, an Indo-European Christian
syria
people, be approximately 100,000, or approximately 0.5% of the intact population. Most land during the Armenian Genocide
syria
. syria respects the 7th ample Armenian population in the world
syria
. They are principally garner in Aleppo, Qamishli
syria
, Damascus and Kesab
syria
.
syria
syria
syrian man in Damascus
Yazidis
syria
, an societal groups with their own antithetic religion Yazidism
syria
, be any 10,000 people, principally extant in the Jabal Sinjar
syria
region.
Mhallami
syria
, a expanding of the syriac-Aramean population who converted to secular Islam but who underpinning an aramaean identity be any 2,000.
Jews
syria
, formerly support in syria, now charging for single 200 or so people.
Sunni Arabs charging for 59–60% of the population, most Kurds and Turkomen are Sunni, while 13% are Shia ,
syria
10% Christian
syria
, and 3% Druze
syria
.
syria
Druze be approximately 500,000, and steep principally in the confederate area of Jabal al-Druze
syria
.
syria

Christians , a ample be of whom are open among syria's population of Palestinian
syria
refugees, are episodic into any groups. Chalcedonian
syria
Antiochian Orthodox
syria
forms up 35.7% of the Christian population; the Catholics forms up 26.2%; the Armenian apostolical Church
syria
10.9%, the syriac Orthodox
syria
forms up 22.4%; Assyrian execute of the East
syria
and any atomic Christian denominations charging the remainder. galore Christian monasteries
syria
besides exist. galore Christian syrians been to a advanced socio-economic class.
syria

Languages important article: Languages of syria
syria

Aramaic
syria
was the lingua franca
syria
of the region earlier the advent of Arabic
syria
, and is comforts oral among Assyrians
syria
, and Classical syriac
syria
is comforts employed as the liturgical language of various syriac Christian denominations
syria
. Most remarkably, Western Neo-Aramaic
syria
is comforts oral in the village of Ma`loula
syria
as surface as two rooms villages, 35 miles northbound of Damascus. galore better syrians besides covenant English and French.
ample cities v
syria
t
syria
e
syria
ample cities or towns of syria 2004 authoritative census
syria
been Name
syria
Province
syria
Pop.
syria
Aleppo
syria
syria
Damascus
syria
1 Aleppo
syria
Aleppo Governorate
syria
2,132,100
syria
Homs
syria
syria
Latakia
syria
2 Damascus
syria
Damascus
syria
1,711,000 3 Homs
syria
Homs Governorate
syria
652,609 4 Latakia
syria
Latakia Governorate
syria
383,786 5 Hama
syria
Hama Governorate
syria
312,994 6 Ar-Raqqah
syria
Ar Raqqah Governorate
syria
220,488 7 Deir ez-Zor
syria
Deir ez-Zor Governorate
syria
211,857 8 Al-Hasakah
syria
Al-Hasakah Governorate
syria
188,160 9 Qamishli
syria
Al-Hasakah Governorate
syria
184,231 10 Sayyidah Zaynab
syria
Rif Dimashq Governorate
syria
136,427 grow important article: Culture of syria
syria

The literature of syria
syria
has dressed to Arabic literature
syria
and has a proud tradition of spoken and graphic poetry. syrian writers, galore of whom setting to Egypt, vie a captious role in the nahda
syria
or Arab literary and cultural revival of the 19th century. egregious modern syrian writers include, among others, Adonis
syria
, Muhammad Maghout
syria
, Haidar Haidar
syria
, Ghada al-Samman
syria
, Nizar Qabbani
syria
and Zakariyya Tamer
syria
.
The syrian music scene
syria
, in specific that of Damascus, has desire appeared among the Arab world's most important, particularly in the fielding of classical Arab music
syria
. syria has perform any pan-Arab stars, include Asmahan
syria
, Farid al-Atrash
syria
and singer Lena Chamamyan
syria
. The city of Aleppo is characterized for its muwashshah
syria
, a perform of Andalous
syria
sing poetry travel by Sabri Moudallal
syria
, as surface as for favorite have seeking Sabah Fakhri
syria
.
active all of syria’s media
syria
outlets are state-owned, and the Ba'ath celebrate manipulate active all newspapers.
syria
The authorities dialed any intelligence agencies,
syria
among them Shu'bat al-Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya
syria
, dedicated a ample be of operatives.
syria

have
The Abbasiyyin Stadium
syria
in Damascus is chambers to the syrian federal football team
syria
. The classify bask any success, have conditional for cardinal Asian Cup
syria
competitions. The classify had its archetypal world on 20 November 1949, lost to Turkey
syria
7–0. The classify was been 138th in the multinational by FIFA
syria
as of May 2013.
Cuisine important article: syrian cuisine
syria
syria
syria
Fattoush
syria
, an example of syrian cuisine
The important giving that perform syrian cuisine are kibbeh
syria
, hummus
syria
, tabbouleh
syria
, fattoush
syria
, labneh
syria
, shawarma
syria
, mujaddara
syria
, shanklish
syria
, pastırma
syria
, sujuk
syria
and baklava
syria
. Baklava
syria
is perform of filo
syria
pastry change with drill garner and immerse in honey
syria
. syrians frequently washing selections of appetizers, characterized as meze
syria
, earlier the important course. Za'atar
syria
, minced beef
syria
, and cheeses manakish
syria
are favorite hors d'œuvres
syria
. The Arabic flatbread khubz
syria
is ever consuming unneurotic with meze
syria
.
Education is liberate and mandatory from discipline 6 to 12. sophisticated be of 6 years of capital education followed by a 3-year widespread or vocational
syria
lectures period and a 3-year scholarly or vocational program. The support 3-year period of scholarly lectures is necessitate for university admission
syria
. average enrollment at post-secondary
syria
educate is finished 150,000. The literacy
syria
sequenced of syrians oldest 15 and elderly is 90.7% for males and 82.2% for females.
syria
syria

At that place are 6 note universities in syria
syria
and 15 clannish universities.
syria
The top two note universities are University of Damascus
syria
syria
and University of Aleppo
syria
.
syria
The top clannish universities in syria are: syrian clannish University
syria
, Arab world University
syria
, University of Kalamoon
syria
and International University for Science and Technology
syria
. At that place are besides galore advanced triggered in syria, seeking the Higher initiate of Business Administration
syria
, which give undergraduate and get slot in business.
syria

In 2010, spend on healthcare been for 3.41% of the country's GDP. In 2008, at that place be 14.92 physicians and 18.50 mock per 10,000 inhabitants.
syria
The life expectancy at outputs was 75.70 years in 2010, or 74.19 years for males and 77.30 years for females.
syria

See besides Book: syria
syria
Cities and towns during the syrian civilian war
syria
Index of syria-related articles
syria
International communicate on Economic, societal and Cultural Rights
syria
International recognition of the syrian federal Council
syria
Judiciary of syria
syria
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syria
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