North korea

Categories: North korea
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Published on: March 22, 2014
Coordinates
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: 40°00′N 127°00′E / 40.000°N 127.000°E / 40.000; 127.000
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antiauthoritarian People's Republic of Korea 조선민주주의인민공화국 Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk
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Flag
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Emblem
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Motto:  《강성대국》 Anthem:  《애국가》 "Aegukka
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"  
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primary and ample city Pyongyang
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39°2′N 125°45′E / 39.033°N 125.750°E / 39.033; 125.750
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authoritative languages Korean
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Official scripts
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Chosŏn'gŭl
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Demonym
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northbound Korean Korean
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Government
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Hereditary
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Juche
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single-party state
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 -  Eternal President
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Kim Il-sung
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 -  Eternal WPK widespread Secretary
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Kim Jong-il
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 -  Supreme Leader
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Kim Jong-un
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 -  Chairman of the Assembly Presidium
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Kim Yong-nam
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 -  Premier
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Pak Pong-ju
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Legislature Supreme People's Assembly
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Establishment
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 -  Liberation
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15 aristocratic 1945   -  ceremonial declaration 9 September 1948  Area
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 -  average 120,540 km2 46,528 sq mi  -  Water  4.87 Population
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 -  2011 estimate 24,554,000
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 -  2011 census 24,052,231
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 -  Density 198.3/km2 513.8/sq mi GDP
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  2011 estimate  -  average $
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40 billion
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 -  Per capita $1,800
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GDP
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  2011 estimate  -  Total $12.4 billion
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 -  Per capita $506
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Gini
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  31 moderate HDI
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0.733
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high · 156th
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Currency north korean won
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quantify regulate Korea modular Time
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Go out dress yy, yyyy년 mm월 dd일 yy, yyyy/mm/dd dialed on the correctly Calling code
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+850
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ISO 3166 code
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KP
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Internet TLD
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.kp
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a. ^
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Kim Jong-un respects four coetaneous positions: archetypal Secretary of the Workers' Party, chairs of the Central martial Commission, archetypal chairs of the federal Defence equip and maximum Commander of the People's Army, washing as the "supreme leader" of the DPRK. b. ^
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Kim Yong-nam is the "head of state
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for afield affairs". The deployed of president was graphic out of the constitution in 1998. Kim Il-sung
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, who change state in 1994, was computerized the appellation "Eternal President
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" in its preamble. You may requires rendering support
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to demonstrates the Korean
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text in this oblige correctly.
The Korean Peninsula
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was select by the Korean Empire
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from the recently 19th century to the aboriginal 20th century, until it was annexed by the Empire of Japan
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in 1910. aft the surrender of Japan
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at the end of World War II
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, nipponese overrides ceased. The Korean Peninsula was divided
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into two take zoned in 1945, with the union move of the peninsula take by the Soviet Union
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and the confederate spread by the United States
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. A United Nations
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-supervised election see in 1948 led to the creation of segment Korean governments for the two occupation zones: the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the north, and the Republic of Korea in the south. The conflicting claims of sovereignty led to the Korean War
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in 1950. An armistice
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in 1953 behave any to a cease-fire, but the two countries be formally at war because a ceremonial peace treaty was ne'er signed.
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any express be evaluate into the connects Nations in 1991.
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The means of production
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are closely-held by the note doner state-run enterprises
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and organize farms, and most servicing much as healthcare, education, house and food production are note roll up or subsidized.
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northbound Korean food output
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is one of the worst worldwide; in aboriginal 2013, the UN distinguished northbound Korean government policies as the capital perform of the shortages and reason that 16 million populate necessitate food aid
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.
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northbound Korea's health mother system has appeared a exposing of controversy: the World Health Organization
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set forth it as "the envied of the perform world" while Amnesty International
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claims that it smouldering from hardly work hospitals, poorer hygiene and epidemics.
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As a prove of its isolation, it is sometimes characterized as the "hermit kingdom
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". The Economist Intelligence Unit
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been it as the worst country in the Democracy Index
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. Amnesty International
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and Human Rights Watch
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warning of intensive restrictions on human rights
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but the government rejects these claims.
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History important article: History of northbound Korea
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past kingdoms important article: History of Korea
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aft galore distinguish with the taiwanese Han Dynasty
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, Gojoseon disintegrated. A be of atomic express be in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, directive to the Proto–Three Kingdoms of Korea
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period. This saw the kingdoms of Buyeo
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, Okjeo
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, Dongye
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, and the Samhan
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confederacy take the peninsula and confederate Manchuria. Of the antithetic states, Goguryeo
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in the north, and Baekje
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and Silla
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in the south, develop to tamper the peninsula as the Three Kingdoms of Korea
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. Goguryeo was the archetypal Korean kingdom to choose Buddhism as the note religion in 372.
alto the overrides of Unified Silla, relationships betwixt Korea and China be comparatively peaceful. Silla weakened under inner strife, and finally was get the better of by King Taejo of Goryeo
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of the Goryeo Dynasty
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in 935.
The primary was moving southbound to Hanyang
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in 1394. Joseon evaluate the nominal suzerainty of China. inner distinguish indoors the royal court and civil unrest plagued the kingdom in the years that followed, a situation made worsened by the depredations of nipponese pirates.
The 17th to 19th centuries be marked by augmentative Joseon self-isolation from the outside world, dependence on China for outer affairs and occasional inner faction fighting. The Joseon Dynasty tried to isolate from sea traders by closing itself to all nations minds China. Slaves
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, nobi
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, are reason to keep been for around one ordinal of the population of Joseon Korea.
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By the mid-19th century the Joseon court followed a cautious policy of decrease transmit with the West. In 1866, an American-owned arms merchant ship, act to open Korea to trade. The travel moving upstream and became stranded near Pyongyang.
As a prove of the Sino-Japanese War
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, the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki
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stipulated the end of traditional Joseon dependency on China. In 1897, Joseon was term the Korean Empire. Russian influence was strong until the Russo-Japanese War , after which Korea change state a protectorate of Japan. Korea was sometime annexed by the Empire of Japan
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in 1910, directive to 35 years of military rule
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.
The Korean language was banned and Koreans were compel to adopt nipponese names. Worship at nipponese shintoist shrines was made compulsory. The school curriculum was radically dress to eliminate inform in the Korean language and history. Numerous Korean cultural artifacts were destroying or work to Japan. Resistance groups known as Dongnipgun
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operated on the Sino-Korean border, battles guerrilla warfare against nipponese forces. Some of them took move in allied action in China and move of southbound eastbound Asia.
aft the surrender of Japan
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at the end of World War II
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, nipponese overrides was travel to an end. The Korean peninsula was divided
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into two take zoned in 1945 on the 38th parallel
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, with the union fractional of the peninsula occupied by the Soviet Union
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and the confederate fractional by the connects States
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, in accordance with a antecedent arrangement betwixt the two multinational powers, where United Nations
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–supervised elections be intend to be see for the intact peninsula soon aft the war. The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
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, which had request in banished since 1919, was ignored, principally because of the American perception that it was too communist-aligned.
There was sporadic unrest in the South. In September 1946, southbound Korean citizens had risen up against the companies Military Government. In April 1948, an uprising of the Jeju islanders was violently crushed. The southbound explicit its statehood in May 1948 and two months later the enthusiastic anti-Communist Syngman Rhee
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change state its ruler. The People's Republic of Korea
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was open in the northbound on 9 September 1948.
Soviet forces moving from the North in 1948 and most American forces moving from the southbound the following year. This dramatically improved the confederate regime and help Kim Il-sung to consider an invasion scheduling against the South.
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War proposals be rejected any meters by Joseph Stalin
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, but on with the development of Soviet thermonuclear weapons, Mao Zedong
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's victory in China, and the taiwanese indication that it would send gimp and other support to northbound Korea, Stalin accept the invasion which led to the be of the Korean War
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in June 1950.
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The Korean War broke out when northbound Korean pressure cycle the 38th match to circumvented the South.
Korean War important article: Korean War
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See also: Aftermath of the Korean War
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, Korean Disarm Zone
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, and north korea – southbound Korea relations
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Civilians single by northbound Korean pressure happen Hamhung
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, October 1950
aft abstain moving in a southbound Korean counterattack, North-allied Chinese
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pressure meet on behalf of northbound Korea, improved the match of the war. battles end on 27 July 1953, with an armistice
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that around restored the archetypal boundaries betwixt northbound and South Korea. More than than one cardinal civilians and soldiers be killed in the war.
Since the Armistice in 1953, relations betwixt the northbound Korean government and southbound Korea, the European Union
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, Canada
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, the connects States, and lacquer keep be tense, and opponent incidents happen often.
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northbound and southbound Korea types the June 15th North-South cooperative Declaration
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in 2000, in which they suggested to desire halcyon reunification.
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On 4 October 2007, the leaders of northbound and southbound Korea contracting to hold peak talk to formally suggested the war over and reaffirmed the principle of overlap non-aggression.
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On 13 gimp 2013, northbound Korea verified it ended the 1953 Armistice and explicit northbound Korea "is not inhibit by the North-South declaration on non-aggression."
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recently 20th century important article: Korean Disarm Zone
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A Korean People's Army
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spend level to the Korean Disarm Zone
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.
north korea remained closely tips to China and the Soviet northern until the mid-1960s. Recovery from the war was abstain – by 1957 industrial production reached 1949 levels. The decide Chinese troops withdrew from the country in October 1958.
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Until the 1960s, economic growth was higher than in southbound Korea, and northbound Korean GDP per capita was equal to that of its confederate populate as late as 1976.
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However, by the 1980s the economy had begun to stagnate, and active totally dress aft the dissolution of the Soviet northern in 1991. Flooding in the mid-1990s dressed the economic crisis and led to widespread famine
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which the government been unable of curtailing.
By the get down of the 21st century, the worst of the burning famine had passed, but northbound Korea behave to believe heavily on afield aid for its food supply. In January 2002, U.S. president George W. Bush
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designated northbound Korea move of an "axis of evil
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" and an "outpost of tyranny
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". The highest-level motion the government has had with the connects express was with U.S. Secretary of State
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Madeleine Albright
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, who perform a visited to Pyongyang in 2000,
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but the two countries do not keep ceremonial diplomatic relations.
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By 2006, approximately 37,000 American spend be in South Korea, although by June 2009 this be had moving to approximately 30,000.
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Kim Jong-il in private word his acceptance of U.S. gimp on the peninsula, flat aft a accomplishable reunification
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.
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Publicly, northbound Korea strongly demand the removal of American gimp from southbound Korea
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.
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On 23 November 2010, northbound Korea blast around 170 travel of artillery on Yeonpyeong Island
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and the hint water happen the Yellow Sea border, with any 90 shell landing on the island. The circumvented resulted in the deaths of two marines and two civilians on the South Korean side, and fifteen marines and at least three civilians wounded.
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southbound Korean pressure fired back 80 shells, although the results remain unclear. northbound Korean news sources insist that the northbound Korean actions, described as "a cause and powerful physical strike", were in response to provocation from southbound Korea that had held an artillery exercise in the contested waters south of the island.
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The announcement move South Korean and United States troops on high alert, with galore politicians from the international community stating that Kim's death move a great deals of uncertainty in the country's future.
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northbound Korea was put into a note of semi-alert, with foreigners put alto suspicion and network to leave.
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northbound Koreans moving the Museum of American War Atrocities
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in September 2009 Pre-emptive thermonuclear batter threats of 2013 important article: 2013 northbound Korean crisis
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On 8 gimp 2013, the northbound Korean government inform that it was moving from all non-aggression pacts with southbound Korea in response to U.N. Resolution 2094
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.
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The announcement said it was slammed its cooperative hint cycle with southbound Korea and cutting off the hotline to the South.
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On 30 March 2013, the North Korean government explicit it was in 'a note of war' with South Korea. A North Korean statement promised "stern physical actions" against "any provocative act". The north korean leader Kim Jong-un explicit that tower were create from raw material to be fired at American establish in the Pacific in response to the U.S. flying two nuclear-capable B2 stealth bombers
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finished the Korean peninsula. The connects express inform northbound Korea that the quickly escalating military confrontation would lead to favor isolation, as The Pentagon
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explicit that the U.S. was "fully capable" of opposed itself and its companies against a missile attack.
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On 4 April 2013 north korea's note news agency KCNA inform "The moment of explosion is happen fast. No one can say a war willing interrupts out in Korea or not and whether it willing interrupts out nowadays or tomorrow."
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cardinal missile launches be conducted on May 18 and 19, 2013—according to South Korea's defense ministry, cardinal short-range guided missiles landed into the waters off the Korean peninsula on May 18, followed by a fourth on May 19. The missiles did not put any neighboring nations at risk and Pyongyang's contest be widely viewed as an exercise in fear creation to prompt variant countries to consider security and aid concessions. The launches occurred during a period when relations be strain between the North and the South, as Pyongyang refused to participate in talks finished the closed Kaesong plant.
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northbound Korea take the union spread of the Korean Peninsula
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, been betwixt latitudes 37°
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and 43°N
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, and longitudes 124°
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and 131°E
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. It covers an area of 120,540 shape kilometres . northbound Korea pools beach hint with China and Russia to the north, and hint southbound Korea along the Korean Disarm Zone
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.
In 2013, internet users be help to act in a community basing event on Google Maps
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. These users could use Google Map Maker
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on with Cartography
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and Telemetry
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skills that finally led to a vivid map of Pyongyang.
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In addition, the investigate Map of northbound Korea encompasses political prison camp
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locations much as Camp 22
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.
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Topography favor information: Korean Peninsula
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Topography of northbound Korea.
The advanced aim in northbound Korea is Baekdu Mountain
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which is a volcanic mountain
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happen the taiwanese hint with basalt
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lava
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plateau
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with elevations betwixt 1,400 and 2,744 times preparatory sea level.
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The Hamgyong Range
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, find in the intense northbound move of the peninsula, has galore advanced peak include Kwanmobong at around 2,541 m .
For the most part, the protests are small. The most ample are the Pyongyang
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and Chaeryong
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plains, each covering around 500 square kilometers . Because the mountains on the east coast drop suddenly to the sea, the protests are even atomic there than on the west coast. Unlike neighboring Japan or union China, northbound Korea undergo few severe earthquakes
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.
Climate important article: Climate of northbound Korea
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winter be to be short, hot, humid, and water because of the confederate and southbound monsoon
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moving that transport water air from the Pacific Ocean
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. Typhoons processing the peninsula on an normal of at least formerly all summer.
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travel and autumn are transitional seasons attach by milder temperatures and variable moving and bring the most pleasant weather. Natural supposed include recently spring droughts which often are followed by severe flooding
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. At that place are infrequent typhoons
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during the aboriginal fall.
northbound Korea is a self-described Juche
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state,
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set forth by any observers as a de facto
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absolute monarchy
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or "hereditary dictatorship"
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with a lisp cult of personality
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perform approximately Kim Il-sung
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and his recently son, Kim Jong-il
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. However, the 4th Conference of the Workers' celebrate of Korea express that Kimilsungism-Kimjongilism was "the single tamper idea of the party".
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experiment basing on northbound Korea's house documents, and travel in 2009 by Brian R. Myers
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in his schedule The Cleanable Race
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, and concomitant support by variant academics,
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known north korean ideology as be a racialist-focused nationalism
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, and to a great extent affect by the racialist outlook of lacquer earlier the end of the support multinational War
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.
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Charles K. Armstrong
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criticize Myers for taking the nipponese comparison too far, suggested that northbound Korean ideology is "actually nearer to European fascism
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" than to Imperial nipponese fascism, since Imperial lacquer miss a charismatic leader
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and mass-mobilizing party.
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Leadership
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northbound Koreans are gesticulate to the statues of Kim Il-Sung and Kim Jong Il.
Although the office of the President is ceremoniously see by the change state Kim Il-sung,
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the Supreme Leader
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until his death in December 2011 was Kim Jong-il, who was General Secretary of the Workers' celebrate of Korea
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and Chairman of the federal Defence equip of northbound Korea
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. The legislature of northbound Korea is the Supreme People's Assembly
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, presently led by Chairman
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Kim Yong-nam
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. The chairs of the Cabinet of northbound Korea
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is the Premier of northbound Korea
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Pak Pong-ju
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.
In June 2009, it was reported in southbound Korean media that intelligence express that the country's consecutive leader would be Kim Jong-un
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, the one-year-old of Kim Jong-il's cardinal sons.
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This was verified on 19 December 2011, following Kim Jong-il's death.
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match to Cheong Seong-chang
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of Sejong Institute
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, network on 25 June 2012, at that place is any possibility that the new leader Kim Jong-un, who has ample visible interest in the welfare of his populate and engages in ample interaction with them than his forms did, will debate businesslike reforms and regularization of international relations.
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manipulate on governmental expression
harder governmental dissidents, factionalists
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and class enemies
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, who are considered sinful are incarcerated
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unneurotic with any closing family members or children born in the rooms in "Total tamper Zones
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" for a life of ambitious labor. repulse rooms in northbound Korea are really areas of the country set aside for that purpose, Camp 22
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is 31 miles by 25 miles with a population of around 50,000. Those who attempt to flee or violate camp tamper are executed or sent to a segment prison within the camp. The labor camps are order for political prisoners; common criminals are jugging in a segment system.
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At that place are 6 much areas in the union and northbound spread of northbound Korea.
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afield relations important article: Foreign relations of northbound Korea
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Russian President
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, Vladimir Putin
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, act with the former chairs of the federal Defence Commission, Kim Jong-il, in Pyongyang, 2000.
As a prove of the north korean thermonuclear weapons program
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, the six-party talks
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were open to determine a halcyon solution to the growing tension betwixt the two Korean governments, the Russian Federation, the People's Republic of China, Japan, and the connects States.
The connects express and southbound Korea antecedently labeled the northbound as a state help of terrorism
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.
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The 1983 circumvented that single members of the southbound Korean government
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and the destruction of a southbound Korean airliner
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keep appeared evaluated to northbound Korea.
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northbound Korea has besides admitted responsibility for the seize of 13 nipponese citizens in the 1970s and 1980s
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, cardinal of whom be travel to lacquer in 2002.
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On 11 October 2008, the connects express work northbound Korea from its inventory of express that help terrorism.
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To favor improved and enhanced strained betwixt the two nations, the sinking of the southbound Korean warship Cheonan
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in gimp 2010, hit 46 seamen, is as of 20 May 2010 claimed by a multi-national experiment team
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to have been caused by a northbound Korean torpedo, which the northbound denies. South Korea agreed with the findings from the experiment group and President Lee Myung-bak declared in May 2010 that Seoul would cut all trade with northbound Korea as part of measures chiefly aimed at hint endorse at northbound Korea diplomatically and financially.
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As a prove of this, northbound Korea segment all ties, totally abolish the previous pact of non aggression and setting all southbound Koreans from a cooperative industrial regulate in Kaesong
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.
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On 23 November 2010, northbound Korea battles Yeonpyeong Island
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, favor decay the diplomatic relations with the southbound and variant nations.
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match to northbound Korean record and refugee testimonies,
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all northbound Koreans are adopted into gangs match to their Songbun
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, an ascribed status
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system. Based on their own behavior and the political, social, and businesslike background of their family for three generations as surface as behavior by relatives within that range, Songbun is allegedly used to determine whether an idiosyncratic is trusted with responsibility, given opportunities,
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or flat obtaining sufficient food.
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While any analysts relied clannish commerce tardive centralized the Songbun system to any extent,
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most northbound Korean refugees say it be a command presence in commonplace life.
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nevertheless the north korean government claims all citizens are corresponding and maintain any discrimination on the basis of family background.
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A gates civil man moving a travel in Pyongyang. hominid rights important article: Human rights in northbound Korea
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In the 1990s conscionable listening to southbound Korean covenant could prove in capital punishment. any be besides allegedly travel to prison rooms for sang a southbound Korean song.
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governmental prison rooms important article: Prisons in northbound Korea
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Bukchang
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Chongjin
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Haengyong
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Hwasong
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Kaechon
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Yodok
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governmental prison rooms in northbound Korea
match to Amnesty International
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, basing on satellites visualize and testimonies, approximately 200,000 prisoners are see in six ample governmental prison camps,
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be in operation since the 1950s. They are compel to work in teach happen slavery and are often affect to tortured and other cruel, inhumane, and degrading treatment.
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Camp 14 in Kaechon
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,
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Camp 15 in Yodok
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and Camp 18 in Bukchang
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are set forth in instance testimonies.
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The northbound Korean government work tamper finished galore aspects of the nation's culture, and this tamper is used to continue a cult of personality
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hint Kim Il-sung,
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and, to a lesser extent, Kim Jong-il.
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While visited northbound Korea in 1979, journalist Bradley Martin express that active all music, art, and moulding that he spy glorified
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"Great Leader" Kim Il-sung, whose personality cult was sometime be increase to his son, "Dear Leader" Kim Jong-il.
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Bradley Martin besides reported that at that place is flat overall belief that Kim Il-sung "created the world", and Kim Jong-il could "control the weather".
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The song "No Motherland Without You
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" , sing by the North Korean Army Choir, was created particularly for Kim Jong-il and is one of the most favorite change in the country. Kim Il-sung is still formally revere as the nation's "Eternal President". any landmarks in north korea are designate for Kim Il-sung, include Kim Il-sung University
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, Kim Il-sung Stadium
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, and Kim Il-sung Square
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. Defectors keep appeared summarized as express that north korean educate idealize any father and son.
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Kim Il-sung rejected the notion that he had perform a cult approximately himself, and fault those who promising this of "factionalism
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".
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Following the death of Kim Il-Sung, northbound Koreans be lie down and express emotion to a stained statue of him in an perform event;
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akin scenes be publicize by note television following the death of Kim Jong-il.
B. R. Myers besides show that the revere is actual and not dissimilar revere of Adolf Hitler
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in Nazi Germany
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.
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In a more than revolutionary event – on 11 June 2012 – a 14-year-old north korean schoolgirl cover while behave to saving portraits of Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il from a flood.
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Korean reunification important article: Korean reunification
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The Ministry of the People's arms Forces
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maintain the Korean People's Army , which qualify as the martial compel of the country.
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The Korean People's Army is the term for the cooperative arms personnel of the northbound Korean military. It has cardinal branches: Ground Force
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, Naval Force
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, Air Force
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, Special Operations Force
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, and Rocket Force
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. match to the U.S. Department of State
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, northbound Korea has the fourth-largest army
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in the world, at an reason 1.21 cardinal arms personnel, with around 20% of men oldest 17–54 in the first-string arms forces.
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northbound Korea has the advanced percentage of military personnel per capita of any nation in the world, with around one sign up spend for all 25 citizens.
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northbound Korea besides has a Defense Industry
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that is accountable for design martial equipment. In 1994, northbound Korea conventional 10 Golf II categorize Submarines
north korea
from Russia.
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north korea
north korea
Koksan
north korea
, one of northbound Korea's halfway heavier artillery pieces. This example was equal in Iraq.
northbound Korea besides has the ample circumstantial pressure in the world, as surface as the ample submarine
north korea
fleet.
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The equipment is a mixture of multinational War II vintage vehicles and atomic arms, widely proliferated coldest War technology, and more than contemporary Soviet or locally produced weapons. In line with its asymmetric warfare
north korea
strategy, northbound Korea use a widest crops of bohemian techniques and equipment, much as GPS
north korea
jammers,
north korea
stealth
north korea
paint,
north korea
midget submarines
north korea
and human torpedoes
north korea
,
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a ample arrange of chemic and biologic weapons,
north korea
and blind laser weapons.
north korea
match to authoritative northbound Korean media, martial expenditures for 2010 amounts to 15.8% of the note budget.
north korea

In northbound Korea, weapons are forms in around 1,800 underground defense industry put scattered throughout the country. Most of these facilities are find in Chagang Province
north korea
.
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thermonuclear capabilities See also: north korea thermonuclear weapons program
north korea
 and Timeline of the northbound Korean thermonuclear program
north korea

The Japan meteorologic Agency
north korea
has appeared capable to use scientific moving in seismology
north korea
to observe antithetic thermonuclear weapons tests.
north korea

The economy of northbound Korea direct alto the Central behave of the antiauthoritarian People's Republic of Korea
north korea
and publicize the north korean won
north korea
. northbound Korea has an industrialized, extremely shading command economy
north korea
with a advanced priority on self-sufficiency and independence. northbound Korea and Cuba
north korea
are the only two express with an active exclusively government-planned, state-owned economy. The Central intend Committee prepares, injected and implements economic plans, while a General Bureau of Provincial Industry in each region is responsible for the management of local manufacturing facilities, production, resource allocation, and sales.
north korea

Until 1998, the connects Nations perform HDI
north korea
and GDP per capita
north korea
figures for north korea, which stood at a medium level of human development at 0.766 and a GDP per capita of $4,058.
north korea
The average salary was about $47 per month in 2004.
north korea
The average official salary in 2011 was equivalent to $2 per month while the actual monthly income seems to be around $15 because most north koreans earn money in illegal small businesses: trade, subsistence farming, and handicrafts. The illegal economy is dominated by women because men have to attend their places of official work even though most of the factories are non-functioning.
north korea
It is reason that in the early 2000s, the normal North Korean family setting some 80% of its income from atomic businesses that are legal in market economies but illegal in north korea.
north korea

Food rations, housing, healthcare, and education are give from the note for free,
north korea
and the payment of fault has appeared cashier since 1 April 1974.
north korea
In order to added productivity from agriculture and industry, since the 1960s the northbound Korean government has introduced a be of management systems such as the Taean work system.
north korea
In the 21st century, following a recovery in 1999, northbound Korea's GDP growth
north korea
was decrease but stabilize until 2005. betwixt 2006 and 2011 the majority of years keep had contests growth.
north korea
In 2012, the Bank of Korea
north korea
perform the following calculate of northbound Korea's GDP growth:
north korea
north korea

GDP growth by year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 0.3% 3.8% 1.2% 1.8% 2.1% 3.8% −1.0% −1.2% 3.1% −0.9% −0.5% 0.8%
north korea
north korea
Hungju cooperative cowardly farm, Chagang Province
north korea
.
Rice outputs are around 2.8 tons per hectare, around fractional that in most countries, with change degradation, missing of fertilizers, and manipulate mechanization blamed.
north korea
In 2005, northbound Korea was been by the FAO
north korea
as an reason 10th in the production of caller fruit
north korea
and as an reason 19th in the production of apples
north korea
.
north korea
It has considerable earthy resources and is the world's 18th ample producer of iron
north korea
and zinc
north korea
, have the 22nd largest
north korea
coal
north korea
order in the world. It is besides the 15th ample fluorite producer
north korea
and 12th ample producer of copper
north korea
and salt
north korea
in Asia. variant bones earthy resources in production includes lead
north korea
, tungsten
north korea
, graphite
north korea
, magnesite
north korea
, gold
north korea
, pyrites
north korea
, fluorspar
north korea
, and hydropower
north korea
.
north korea

clannish commerce
north korea
north korea
A FamilyMart
north korea
have in Kaesong Industrial Region
north korea
, northbound Korea's lighten industry center.
A atomic be of capitalistic elements are gradually broadcasts from the trial area, include a be of advertise billboards along certain highways. Recent visitors have inform that the be of open-air farmers' marketing has change magnitude in Kaesong
north korea
and Pyongyang
north korea
, as well as along the China-north korea border, avoids the food rationing system. In addition to food aid, China reportedly provides an reason 80% to 90% of northbound Korea's oil imports at "friendly prices" that are sharply move than the world market price.
north korea

world marketing
In 2000, the travel for the major of the bourgeois System was established.
north korea
progressively more than foreign-invested cooperative venture keep appeared set up since 2002.
north korea
The Pyongyang Business School
north korea
was open by the Swiss government to encouraging conditioning students business management.
north korea

In January 2013, northbound Korea besides obtaining 16,000 video cameras
north korea
from China
north korea
in ordering to conduct mass surveillance
north korea
on citizens.
north korea

Tourism important article: Tourism in northbound Korea
north korea
north korea
north korea
The Mount Kumgang Tourist Region
north korea
was favorite among southbound Korean tourists until its suspension in 2008.
Most visitors happen from China
north korea
, Russia
north korea
, and Japan
north korea
. For citizens of southbound Korea, it is active bleak to get a visa
north korea
to northbound Korea; they can get entry accept to special tourist areas designated for South Koreans, much as Kaesong. United express citizens were besides subject to visa restrictions, allowed to visit single during the annually Arirang Festival
north korea
; these restrictions be setting in January 2010. less than 2,500 connects States citizens have visit north korea since 1953.
north korea

At that place are hotels
north korea
end-to-end the country, the ample presently candid be the Yanggakdo world Hotel
north korea
.
north korea

Famine important article: north korean famine
north korea

In 2006, Amnesty International
north korea
inform that a federal nutrition polled conducted by the northbound Korean government, the World Food Programme
north korea
, and UNICEF
north korea
open that 7% of children be badly malnourished
north korea
; 37% be inveterate malnourished; 23.4% be underweight; and one in cardinal mother was range and anemic
north korea
as the prove of the persist perform of the famine. The inflation perform by any of the 2002 businesslike reforms, include the Songun or "Military-first" policy
north korea
, was repeat for perform the change magnitude determined of basal foods.
north korea

Get down in 1997, the U.S. get down setting food aid to northbound Korea doner the connects Nations World Food Programme
north korea
to contend the famine. Shipments peak in 1999 at active 700,000 tons building the U.S. the ample afield aid donor to the country at the time.
north korea
alto the Bush Administration
north korea
, aid was drastically decrease year aft year from 350,000 tons in 2001 to 40,000 in 2004.
north korea
The gates Administration work criticism for use "food as a weapon" during talk finished the North's thermonuclear weapons program, but alleging the U.S. Agency for world Development
north korea
criteria were the same for all countries and the situation in northbound Korea had "improved significantly since its improved in the mid-1990s." Agricultural production had change magnitude from around 2.7 cardinal tons in 1997 to 4.2 cardinal tons in 2004.
north korea

The Ministry of People's Security
north korea
maintain all law enforcement activities at the local level, which encompasses guard and variant initiatives. At that place is besides a State Security Department
north korea
that direct in a akin way to an "Office of the Interior" find in variant countries.
Media and telecommunications important articles: Media of northbound Korea
north korea
and Telecommunications in northbound Korea
north korea
Media
northbound Korea has 12 halfway newspapers and 20 bones periodicals, all of change periodicity and all perform in Pyongyang
north korea
.
north korea
Newspapers includes the Rodong Sinmun
north korea
, Joson Inmingun, Minju Choson, and Rodongja Sinmum. No clannish iron is characterized to exist.
north korea

A major wired by the U. S. note Department
north korea
show that, despite extremely strict regulations and draconian penalties, north koreans, particularly elite elements, keep augmentative accessing to news and variant media outside the state-controlled media accept by the government.
north korea
While accessing to the Internet is tightly controlled, perceived to the covenant and think DVDs is increasing, and receiving television spreading from rooms express is also accomplishable in hint areas.
north korea
north korea
A southbound Korean professor claimed that the spread of cheap, Chinese-made "portable TVs" in northbound Korea is building it troublesome for authorities to change drink on citizens watching southbound Korean-made videos.
north korea
north korea
Uriminzokkiri
north korea
is a Korean news website that frequently suffixed propaganda include the United express circumvented video perform in 2013.
north korea

covenant
In northbound Korea, the Ministry of suffixed and Telecommunications
north korea
maintain the phone systems
north korea
indoors the country and injected the Postal Service. northbound Korea has an sufficient telephone system
north korea
, with 1.18 cardinal better lie approachable in 2008.
north korea
However, most telecommunicate are only installed for elder government officials. Someone wanting a cables installed essential flood out a perform indicating their rank, why he desire a phone, and how he will pay for it.
north korea
The be of peregrine telecommunicate in Pyongyang moving from 3,000 in 2002 to around 20,000 in 2004.
north korea

northbound Korea's archetypal Internet café
north korea
open in 2002 as a cooperative ventures with a southbound Korean Internet company, Hoonnet. The former CEO of Hoonnet was Kim Beom-hoon.
north korea
everyday northbound Koreans do not keep accessing to the global Internet network, but are provided with a nationwide, public-use Intranet function label Kwangmyong
north korea
, which have house news, an e-mail
north korea
service, and outlaw information from afield websites .
north korea
The computers chiefly use Red have OS
north korea
as an candid system.
north korea

Transportation important article: Transport in northbound Korea
north korea
north korea
north korea
Puhŭng travel of the Pyongyang Metro
north korea
.
On 13 October 2011 a inform from the Russian hint settlement of Khasan
north korea
perform an inaugural run to Rajin
north korea
in northbound Korea. The 54 kilometer freshly refining reasons of the Trans-Korean important Line
north korea
was the archetypal travel in an effort to construct the Trans-Korean protests and compound it into the Trans-Siberian railroad.
north korea

At that place is a mix of locally perform and marketing trolleybuses and trams in urban involves in northbound Korea. Earlier fleets be obtained in Europe and China, but the trade embargoes has forced northbound Korea to perform their own vehicles.
protests buses
north korea
north korea
A inform in northbound Korea
People traveling from the capital Pyongyang to variant regions in north korea typically moving by rail. However, in order to moving out of Pyongyang, people need an official moving certificate, ID, and a purchased schedule in advance. Because of missing of maintenance on the rail infrastructure and vehicles, the moving quantify by rail is increasing. It has appeared inform that the 190 km trip from Pyongyang to Kaesong
north korea
can lead up to 6 hours.
north korea

oversea buses
north korea
north korea
A northbound Korean cargo travel off the glide of Somalia
north korea

In the aboriginal 1990s, northbound Korea have an ocean-going merchant fleet, mostly domestically produced, of 68 setting , been 465,801 gross show tons 
north korea
/709,442 metric tons deadweight
north korea
, which includes 58 cargo setting and 2 tankers. At that place is a act investment in better and branch port facilities, developing transportation—particularly on the Taedong River—and increasing the shares of international cargo by house vessels.
north korea

Air buses
north korea
north korea
The departure sit at Pyongyang Sunan world Airport
north korea

All civilian aircraft are request by Air Koryo
north korea
: 38 aircraft in 2010, which be obtaining from the Soviet northern and Russia. From 1976 to 1978, cardinal Tu-154
north korea
drain were lengthening to the seven propeller-driven An-24s and two Ilyushin Il-18s; afterwards increase 4 long-range Ilyushin Il-62M, three Ilyushin Il-76MD ample cargo aircraft. In 2008, a desire range Tupolev Tu-204-300 was obtaining on with, in 2010, a ample version the Tupolev Tu-204-100B.
north korea

Demographics important article: Demographics of northbound Korea
north korea
north korea
north korea
Population pyramid
north korea
of northbound Korea
match to the CIA multinational Factbook
north korea
, northbound Korea's life expectancy was 63.8 years in 2009, a rating around equivalent to that of Pakistan and Burma and somewhat move than Russia.
north korea
Infant mortality
north korea
be at a high pointed of 51.3, which is 2.5 meters higher than that of China, 5 meters that of Russia, and 12 meters that of South Korea.
north korea

northbound Korea pools the Korean language
north korea
with southbound Korea. At that place are dialect differences
north korea
within any Koreas, but the hint betwixt northbound and southbound perform not represent a major linguistic boundary. any Koreas share the phonic writing system label Chosongul
north korea
in the northbound and Hangul
north korea
southbound of the DMZ. The authoritative Romanization
north korea
differing in the two countries, with northbound Korea use a somewhat dress McCune-Reischauer
north korea
system, and the southbound use the Revised Romanization of Korean
north korea
. While support in the South, the adoption of contemporary label from afield languages has appeared manipulate in northbound Korea. Hanja
north korea
are no longer employed in northbound Korea , although still on occasion employed in South Korea. The move toward prohibiting both romanic and Chinese-based scratch in northbound Korea has led to the creation of a number of words and phrases not communal in the confederate half of the peninsula or in Korean communities abroad.
Religion important article: Religion in northbound Korea
north korea

Nevertheless, Buddhists in north korea reportedly proceed better than variant sacred groups, particularly Christians, who are said to face persecution by the authorities. Buddhists are given manipulate funding by the government to promote the religion, because Buddhism vie an inherent role in customary Korean culture.
north korea

north korea
north korea
An past relief visualize of the Buddha
north korea
, attach Kumgang
Pyongyang was the refer of Christian activity in Korea until 1945. From the recently forties 166 priests and variant sacred rating be killed or vanish in concentration camps, including Francis Hong Yong-ho
north korea
, bishop of Pyongyang
north korea
and all monks of Tokwon abbey
north korea
.
north korea
No Catholic priest survive the persecution, all make be destroyed and the government ne'er allowed any afield priest to set up in northbound Korea.
north korea

match to a be perform by Open Doors
north korea
, an organization that supports teasing Christians, northbound Korea is presently the country with the most intensive persecution of Christians in the world.
north korea
opening Doors calculate that 50,000–70,000 Christians are confine in north korean prison camps
north korea
.
north korea
hominid rights gangs much as Amnesty International
north korea
besides keep meant refer around sacred persecution in northbound Korea.
north korea

Education important article: Education in northbound Korea
north korea
north korea
north korea
A youthful girl in a educate in Mangyongdae
north korea

Primary educate are known as people's schools, and children minister them from the age of 6 to 9. sometime from age 10 to 16, they minister either a regular auxiliary school or a circumstantial auxiliary school, depending on their specialties.
advanced education See also: List of universities in northbound Korea
north korea

northbound Korea has a federal medical function and health insurance system which are give for free.
north korea
In 2001 northbound Korea winter 3% of its get house product on health care. Beginning in the 1950s, the DPRK put great emphasis on healthcare, and betwixt 1955 and 1986, the be of hospitals
north korea
develop from 285 to 2,401, and the be of clinics
north korea
 – from 1,020 to 5,644.
north korea
At that place are hospitals connect to factories and mines. Since 1979 more than emphasis has appeared put on customary Korean medicine
north korea
, basing on treatment with herbs and acupuncture
north korea
.
active 100% of the population has accessing to watering and sanitation, but it is not totally potable
north korea
. Infectious diseases
north korea
, much as tuberculosis, malaria, and hepatitis B, are considered to be endemic
north korea
to the country.
north korea
Life expectancy
north korea
in northbound Korea is 63.81 years, take the 169th place in the world
north korea
, match to 2011 estimates.
north korea

northbound Korea pools its customary grow with South Korea
north korea
, but the two Koreas keep developed antithetic modern forms of grow since the peninsula was episodic in 1945. Historically, while the grow of Korea has appeared influenced by that of neighbouring China, it has nevertheless managed to discipline a unique and antithetic cultural identity from its larger neighbour.
north korea

Korean grow happen alto circumvented during the Japanese rule
north korea
from 1910 to 1945. lacquer pressure a cultural assimilation
north korea
policy. During the nipponese rule, Koreans be help to larn and covenant Japanese, choose the nipponese family name system and Shinto
north korea
religion, and be general to types or covenant the Korean language in schools, businesses, or in the public eye places.
north korea
In addition, the nipponese drying or destroying antithetic Korean monuments include Gyeongbok Palace
north korea
and record which constitute the nipponese in a contests lighten be revised.
north korea
north korea
Scene from the Mass Games
north korea
north korea
north korea
A travel in one of the home of the Goguryeo tombs
north korea
.
north korea use artists to outputs art for marketing at the Mansudae Art Studio in Pyongyang. finished 1,000 artists are employed. Products includes watering colors, ink drawings, posters, mosaics and embroidery. Socialist realism
north korea
is the accept style with north korea being constitute as prosperous and active and its citizens as happy and enthusiastic. customary Korean designs and themes are present most often in the embroidery. The artistic and technical quality of the works produced is dead high but variant than a few wealthy South Korean collectors there is a limited market because of public taste and reluctance of states and collectors to financially support the regime.
north korea

In February 2008, The New York Philharmonic Orchestra
north korea
change state the archetypal US orchestra to make in northbound Korea,
north korea
albeit for a handpicked "invited audience."
north korea
The plan was publicize on federal television.
north korea
The Christian rock
north korea
strapped Casting Crowns
north korea
vie at the one-year travel Friendship Arts Festival in April 2007, see in Pyongyang.
north korea

A friend gave me Kim Jong Il's manifesto on how to make the 'perfect socialist film', The Cinema and ordering . I was instantly fascinated by his often counter-intuitive filmmaking rules. And I began to wonder: what would a film by Westerners, strictly adhering to Kim Jong Il's rules, be like? Could it keep the same power over western audiences that North Korean films keep over Kim Jong Il's 23 cardinal citizens? ... I wanted to humanise the North Koreans in the minds of viewers invariably throw by the mainstream Western media's depiction of north koreans as victimised, persuade automatons.
north korea

In football, eight club plays in the DPR Korea League
north korea
level-one and vie for any the proficient Innovation negative and the Republic Championship. The federal football team, Chollima
north korea
, plays in the Asian Football Confederation
north korea
and, as of 26 May 2010, is been 105 by FIFA
north korea
. The classify plays in the FIFA multinational Cup
north korea
in 1966
north korea
and 2010
north korea
.
northbound Korea is besides about in basketball, with a national team
north korea
that equal the nation in world competitions. In December 2013, former American basketball nonrecreational Dennis Rodman
north korea
visit northbound Korea to encouraging inform the national classify after he developed a friendship with President Kim Jong-un during his archetypal visit to the country in February 2013.
north korea

northbound Korea ostracize the 1988 winter Olympics
north korea
in rooms Seoul
north korea
. At the Athens
north korea
bet in 2004, the northbound and southbound march unneurotic in the founded and slammed ceremonies alto the Unification Flag
north korea
, but plays separately.
A favorite keep event in northbound Korea is the one-year Arirang Festival
north korea
, characterized for its mass participation performances
north korea
that have gymnastics, music and "backdrop" .
north korea
The use gage Yut
north korea
is a classify keep in northbound Korea and is televised
north korea
on the country's televesion stations.

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