Iran

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Published on: March 22, 2014
Coordinates
iran
: 32°N 53°E / 32°N 53°E / 32; 53
iran

moslem Republic of iran جمهوری اسلامی ایران Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān
iran
iran
Flag
iran
Emblem
iran
Motto:  استقلال. آزادی. جمهوری اسلامی "Independence, Freedom, moslem Republic" Anthem:  جمهوری اسلامی ایران National Anthem of the moslem Republic of iran
iran
iran
primary and ample city Tehran
iran
35°41′N 51°25′E / 35.683°N 51.417°E / 35.683; 51.417
iran
authoritative languages Persian
iran
Spoken languages
iran
iran
Persian
iran
Azerbaijani
iran
Kurdish
iran
Lurish
iran
Gilaki
iran
Balochi
iran
Mazandarani
iran
Arabic
iran
Turkmen
iran
Armenian
iran
Georgian
iran
Religion Shia Islam
iran
Demonym
iran
iranian
iran
, iranian Government
iran
Unitary
iran
presidential
iran
Islamic republic
iran
 -  Supreme Leader
iran
Ali Khamenei
iran
 -  President
iran
Hassan Rouhani
iran
Legislature People's House
iran
Unification
iran
 -  Median Empire
iran
c.678 BCE   -  Achaemenid Empire
iran
550 BCE   -  Sassanid Empire
iran
iran
224   -  Safavid Empire
iran
1501
iran
   -  Islamic Republic
iran
1 April 1979   -  Current constitution
iran
24 October 1979   -  Constitution amendment
iran
28 July 1989  Area
iran
 -  average 1,648,195 km2 636,372 sq mi  -  Water  0.7 Population
iran
 -  2013 estimate 77,176,930
iran
 -  Density 48/km2 124/sq mi GDP
iran
  2012 estimate  -  Total $988.437 billion
iran
" title="List of countries by GDP ">17th
iran
)  -  Per capita $12,986
iran
_per_capita" title="List of countries by GDP per capita">75th
iran
) GDP
iran
  2012 estimate  -  Total $548.590 billion
iran
" title="List of countries by GDP ">21st
iran
)  -  Per capita $7,207
iran
_per_capita" title="List of countries by GDP per capita">76th
iran
) Gini
iran
  0.38
iran
low HDI
iran
 0.742
iran
high · 76th
iran
Currency Rial
iran
quantify regulate IRST
iran
 -  Summer  IRDT  Go out dress yyyy/mm/dd dialed on the correctly Calling code
iran
+98
iran
ISO 3166 code
iran
IR
iran
Internet TLD
iran
.ir
iran
ایران.
iran
You may requires rendering support
iran
to demonstrates the Persian text
iran
in this oblige correctly.
iran is chambers to one of the world's aged civilizations
iran
,
iran
iran
get down with the formation of the Proto-Elamite
iran
and Elamite
iran
kingdom in 3200 – 2800 BCE. The iranian
iran
Medes
iran
compound the country into the first of galore empires in 625 BCE, aft which it change state the ascendant cultural and governmental give in the region.
iran
iran peak the surmount of its give during the Achaemenid Empire
iran
initiative by Cyrus the Great
iran
in 550 BCE, which at its superior extent been bones spread of the past world, stretch from the Indus Valley
iran
in the east, to Thrace
iran
and Macedon
iran
on the northbound hint of Greece
iran
, building it the largest empire
iran
the multinational had yet seen.
iran
The empire dress in 330 BCE following the conquests of Alexander the Great
iran
. The area finally obtaining manipulate alto the Parthian Empire
iran
and moving to prominence formerly more than aft the establishment of the Sasanian dynasty
iran
in 224 CE, alto which iran change state one of the directive giving of occidental and principal Asia for the consecutive cardinal centuries.
A geographically antithetic but largely stony country, iran has ever appeared of momentous geopolitical
iran
importance due to its location at the crossroads of principal Asia, occidental Asia, and southbound Asia. Tehran
iran
is the primary and ample city, suffice as the cultural, commercial, and industrial refer of the nation. iran is a bones regional
iran
and middle power
iran
,
iran
iran
use substantial manipulate in international energy security
iran
and the world economy
iran
doner its ample order of fossil fuels
iran
, which includes the ample natural gas supply
iran
in the multinational and the fourth-largest be petroleum reserves
iran
.
iran
iran
It host Asia's fourth-largest be of UNESCO multinational Heritage Sites.
iran
Globally, it been 8th in the multinational for the amounts of schedule perform per year, and was been archetypal in technological develop in the multinational in 2011.
iran
iran
iran

restrict 1 Etymology
iran
2 History
iran
2.1 aboriginal history in iran
iran
2.2 modular Era
iran
2.3 put discipline
iran
2.4 Dynasties
iran
2.5 moslem Republic
iran
3 Geography
iran
3.1 Climate
iran
3.2 Fauna
iran
3.3 Provinces and cities
iran
4 Government and politics
iran
4.1 Law
iran
4.2 afield relations
iran
4.3 Military
iran
5 Economy
iran
5.1 Energy
iran
6 Education and science
iran
7 Demographics
iran
7.1 Languages
iran
7.2 societal groups
iran
7.3 Religion
iran
8 Culture
iran
8.1 Arts and literature
iran
8.2 favorite culture
iran
8.3 Cuisine
iran
8.4 Sports
iran
9 See also
iran
10 References
iran
11 outer links
iran

The term of iran
iran
is the Modern Persian
iran
derives from the Proto-iranian
iran
titled Aryānā, convey "Land of the Aryans
iran
", archetypal certified in Zoroastrianism
iran
's Avesta
iran
tradition.
iran
iran
iran
iran
The titled Ērān is open to involves to iran in a 3rd-century Sassanid
iran
inscription, and the Parthian
iran
inscription that attach to it use the Parthian titled "aryān" in write to iranians.
iran

The historical and cultural beamy usage of "iran
iran
" is not contents to the contemporary note proper.
iran
iran
iran
Irānshahr
iran
or Irānzamīn
iran
equal to territories of persian cultural or lingual zones. also modern iran, it include spread of the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, the Indian subcontinent and principal Asia.
History important article: History of iran
iran
aboriginal history in iran favor information: Archaeological travel in iran
iran
Proto-Elamite
iran
Jiroft culture
iran
Tepe Sialk
iran
, and Shahr-e Sukhteh
iran

The emergence of Susa
iran
as a city is price by C14 go out as aboriginal as 4395 BCE.
iran
At that place are dozens of pre-historic
iran
travel across the persian plateau level to the existence of past grow and urban settlements in the fourth millennium BC
iran
E.
iran
iran
iran
During the Bronze age
iran
iran was chambers to any civilisations much as Elam
iran
, Jiroft
iran
and Zayandeh Rud civilisations
iran
. Elam
iran
, the most egregious of these civilisations developed in the southbound of iran aboard those in Mesopotamia. The development of create verbally in Elam in fourth millennium BC
iran
E match that in Sumer
iran
.
iran
The Elamite
iran
kingdom act its existence until the emergence of the Median
iran
and Achaemenid Empires
iran
.
modular Era
iran
iran
burning of the Achaemenid palace of Persepolis
iran
, now a UNESCO multinational Heritage Site
iran
iran
important articles: Median Empire
iran
, Achaemenid Empire
iran
, Seleucid Empire
iran
, Parthian Empire
iran
, and Sassanid Empire
iran

In 550 BCE, Cyrus the Great
iran
from the note of Anshan
iran
work finished the average empire, and initiative the Achaemenid empire
iran
by compound variant city states. The conquest of Media was a prove of what is label the Persian revolt
iran
; the brouhaha was ab initio activates by the contest of the average ruler Astyages
iran
and rapidly distributed to other provinces as they companies with the Persians. concomitant conquests under Cyrus and his successors grow the empire to includes Lydia
iran
, Babylon
iran
, Egypt
iran
, and the arrive to the westbound of the Indus
iran
and Oxus
iran
rivers. distinguish on the occidental hint get down with the remember Greco-Persian Wars
iran
which act doner the archetypal fractional of the 5th century BCE and end with the iranian withdrawal from all of their European territories.
iran
The empire had a centralised, bureaucratic administration alto the Emperor and a ample nonrecreational army and civil services, inspiring akin developments in concomitant empires.
iran

iran
iran
Achaemenid Empire approximately the quantify of Darius the ample and Xerxes.
The increase Roman-Persian wars
iran
, as surface as social distinguish indoors the Empire
iran
open the way for an Islamic invasion of iran
iran
in the 7th century.
iran
iran
Gundeshapur
iran
was the most central medical travel of the past multinational at the quantify of the moslem conquest.
iran
Ab initio get the better of by the Rashidun Caliphate
iran
, iran concomitant happen alto the overrides of their successors the Ummayad
iran
and Abbasid Caliphates
iran
. The affect of conversion of iranians
iran
to Islam
iran
which followed was increase and gradual. alto the new Arab decide of the Rashidun
iran
and concomitant Ummayad Caliphates
iran
iranians, any moslem and non-Muslim , be distinguish against, be omitting from government and military, and have to pay a special tax
iran
.
iran
iran
In 750 the Abbasids
iran
succeed in subvert the Ummayad Caliphate
iran
, principally due to the help from devils persian mawali.
iran
The mawali perform the majority of the revolt army, which was led by the persian widespread Abu Muslim
iran
.
iran
iran
iran
aft two centuries of Arab overrides semi-independent and autarkic persian kingdoms get down to be on the decorate of the declining Abbasid Caliphate. By the Samanid
iran
era in the 9th and 10th centuries iran's efforts to obtaining its independence had appeared surface solidified.
iran

iran
iran
Persian miniature
iran
constitute Timur
iran
's race in India
The cultural revival that get down in the Abbasid
iran
period led to a surface of iranian federal identity
iran
, and so before act of Arabization
iran
ne'er succeed in iran. The persian Shuubiyah
iran
movement became a catalyst for iranians to obtaining their independence in their relations with the Arab invaders.
iran
The most worth perform of the movement was the continuation of the Persian language
iran
certified to the ample poet Ferdowsi
iran
, now think as the most central rating in iranian literature.
In 1219–21 the Khwarezmian Empire
iran
smouldering a burning invasion
iran
by Genghis Khan
iran
's mongolian army. Mongol
iran
violence and depredations single up to three-fourths of the population of the Iranian Plateau, perhaps 10 to 15 million people. any historians have reason that iran's population did not once again reach its pre-Mongol aim until the mid-20th century.
iran
Following the break of the mongolian Empire in 1256 Hulagu Khan
iran
, Genghis Khan
iran
's grandson, open the Ilkhanate
iran
dynasty in iran. In 1370 yet different conqueror, Timur
iran
, ordinarily characterized as Tamerlane in the West, followed Hulagu
iran
's example, open the Timurid Dynasty
iran
which decide for different 156 years. In 1387, Timur serial the accomplish hit of Isfahan, reportedly hit 70,000 citizens.
iran
Hulagu
iran
, Timur and their successors soon happen to choose the ways and customs of the Persians, select to hint themselves with a grow that was distinctively Persian.
iran

Dynasties
iran
iran
Shah Ismail I
iran
, the overreaching of the Safavid Dynasty
iran
important articles: Safavid Dynasty
iran
, Afsharid Dynasty
iran
, Zand Dynasty
iran
, Qajar Dynasty
iran
, and Pahlavi Dynasty
iran

In 1729, a Khorasan chieftain, Nader Shah
iran
, successfully dialed out, sometime tamper the Pashtun invaders. In 1738-9 he invaded India and lead Delhi
iran
. Following a inform period of civilian war and turmoil, initiate by Nader Shah's assassination, Karim Khan
iran
happen to give in 1750, buses a period of relational peace and prosperity.
iran
different civilian war results aft Karim Khan's death in 1779, out of which Aga Muhammad Khan
iran
be victorious, opening the Qajar Dynasty
iran
in 1794. Qajar overrides is stratified as a century of misrule.
iran
The ample iranian Famine
iran
of 1870–1871 is permit to keep perform the death of 1.5 cardinal persons, or 20–25% of Persia's population.
iran

iran
iran
Nadir Shah
iran
at the sack of Delhi
iran
iran

In 1921 Reza Khan
iran
, Prime ministers of iran
iran
and former widespread of the Persian Cossack Brigade
iran
, subvert the Qajar Dynasty
iran
and change state Shah
iran
. In 1941 he was compel to renounces in favours of his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
iran
, aft iran happen alto British and Russian occupation following the Anglo-Soviet invasion
iran
that open the Persian Corridor
iran
and would decide until 1946.
iran
iran
Mosaddegh
iran
, persian democracy propose and oust PM
iran
in Pahlavi dynasty
aft the coup, the Shah change state progressively autocratic
iran
. discretionary grab and tortured by his concealed police, SAVAK
iran
, be employed to oppress all manufactured of governmental opposition. Ayatollah
iran
Ruhollah Khomeini
iran
change state an about critic of the Shah's White Revolution
iran
and publically disparaging the government. Khomeini was arrested and imprisoned for 18 months. aft his release in 1964, Khomeini publically criticize the United States government. The Shah travel him into exile. He gone archetypal to Turkey
iran
, sometime to Iraq
iran
and eventually to France. By the mid-1970s, at that place was discipline unrest with the Shah's regulatory regime.
moslem Republic See also: iranian Revolution
iran
 and History of the moslem Republic of iran
iran
iran
iran
Ayatollah Khomeini
iran
moving to iran aft 14 years banished on February 1, 1979.
iran
iran
persian women show against the moslem hijab in the days aft the persian revolution.
A referendum
iran
in December 1979 accept a theocratic
iran
constitution.
iran
Although any nationalists and Marxists connected with moslem traditionalists to overthrow the Shah, tens of thousands be executed by the moslem regime afterward.
iran
On 4 November 1979, a groups of persian students seized US embassy personnel
iran
iran
aft the US consent to travel Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
iran
to iran to set about trial. He was in hospital in Texas at the time. act by the Jimmy Carter
iran
administration to hash out for their sacrifice or rescue
iran
them be unsuccessful. In January 1981 the hostages be eventually set liberate match to the Algiers Accords
iran
.
iran
iran
persian spend in Khorramshahr during the iran-Iraq War
iran

In 1987, Iran act to close the iranian Gulf to stopped the move of Iraqi, Kuwaiti and Saudi-Arabian oil, as a way to strangle Iraq, with which it had appeared fighting a enclosed war for almost seven years. On October 15 and 16, iran hit American supertankers with Silkworm missiles
iran
.
iran
iran

Following the iran–Iraq War, President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
iran
and his administration concentrated on a pragmatic pro-business policy of rebuilding and change the economy without building any melodramatic interrupts with the ideology of the revolution. Rafsanjani suffice until 1997. Rafsanjani was succeed by the medium reformist
iran
Mohammad Khatami
iran
. However, Khatami is widely think as have appeared act in attain his goal of building iran more free and democratic.
iran

Hassan Rouhani
iran
was adopted as President of iran
iran
on 15 June 2013, get the better of Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf
iran
and cardinal variant candidates.
iran
iran
He work office on 3 aristocratic 2013 and replace Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
iran
.
Geography important article: Geography of iran
iran
See also: Agriculture in iran
iran
 and Wildlife of iran
iran
iran
iran
Topography of iran
iran be of the iranian Plateau
iran
with the exception of the sliding of the Caspian Sea and Khuzestan Province
iran
. It is one of the world's most stony countries, its panel dominate by knockabout mountain ranges
iran
that segment antithetic basins
iran
or plateaux
iran
from one another. The inhabited occidental move is the most mountainous, with range much as the Caucasus
iran
, Zagros
iran
and Alborz
iran
Mountains; the decide contains iran's advanced point, Mount Damavand
iran
at 5,610 m , which is besides the advanced mountain on the eurasiatic landmass westbound of the Hindu Kush
iran
.
iran

iran's climate
iran
range from arid
iran
or semiarid
iran
, to subtropical
iran
on the Caspian glide and the northern forests
iran
. On the union inches of the country temperatures seldom travel below freezing and the area be wet for the be of the year. Summer temperatures seldom transcend 29 °C .
iran
iran
One-year precipitation is 680 mm in the eastbound move of the apparent and more than than 1,700 mm in the occidental part.
iran's wildlife
iran
is graphs of any physical species include bears, gazelles, frenzied pigs, wolves, jackals, panthers, Eurasian Lynx
iran
, and foxes. house animals include, sheep, goats, cattle, horses, watering buffalo, donkeys, and camels. The pheasant, partridge, stork, shoot and falcons are besides autochthonal to iran.
iran is episodic into eight one provinces
iran
, all select by an based governor . The provinces are episodic into counties , and subdivided into standardized and sub-districts .
Mashhad
iran
, with a population of 2,410,800, is the support ample persian city and the travel of the Razavi Khorasan Province
iran
. Mashhad is one of the holy Shia
iran
cities in the multinational as it is the travel of the Imam Reza shrine
iran
. It is the travel of tourism in iran, and betwixt 15 and 20 cardinal pilgrims go to the Imam Reza
iran
's fences all year.
iran
iran

The twentieth bones city of iran is Tabriz
iran
, the primary of the East Azerbaijan Province
iran
. It is also the support industrial city of Iran after Tehran. Tabriz had appeared the support ample city in iran until the late 1960s and one of its former capitals and residence of the crown prince alto the Qajar dynasty
iran
. The city has be highly authoritative in the country’s revolutionary history.
The fourth bones persian city is Shiraz
iran
; it is the primary of Fars Province
iran
. The Elamite
iran
civilization to the westbound greatly affect the area, which shortly happen to be characterized as Persis
iran
. The past Persians
iran
were show in the region from around the 9th century BCE, and change state rulers of a ample empire alto the Achaemenid dynasty in the 6th century BCE. The burning of Persepolis
iran
and Pasargadae
iran
, two of the cardinal capitals of the Achaemenid Empire
iran
, are located in or near Shiraz. Persepolis was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire and is price 70 kilometres northbound of modern Shiraz. UNESCO declared the citadel of Persepolis a multinational Heritage Site in 1979.
The governmental system of the moslem Republic is basing on the 1979 Constitution
iran
, and been any elaborately joined select bodies. The Leader of the Revolution
iran
is accountable for delineation and supervision
iran
of the widespread policies of the moslem Republic of iran.
iran
The maximum Leader is Commander-in-Chief of the arms forces, manipulate the martial intelligence and security operations; and has soles give to suggested war or peace.
iran
The head of the judiciary, note covenant and television networks, the commanders of the guard and martial pressure and six of the cardinal members of the Guardian Council
iran
are based by the maximum Leader.
iran
The Assembly of Experts
iran
adopted and discount the maximum Leader on the basis of qualifications and favorite esteem.
iran

The President is accountable for the implementation of the Constitution and for the work of executive powers, except for be heterosexual think to the maximum Leader, who has the final say in all matters.
iran
The President based and injected the Council of Ministers
iran
, packing government decisions, and decide government policies to be move earlier the legislature.
iran
thousand Vice-Presidents washing alto the President, as resurfacing as a cabinet of eight two ministers, who essential all be accept by the legislature.
iran

The Guardian Council been cardinal jurists include six based by the maximum Leader. The others are adopted by the Parliament
iran
from among the jurists nominates by the chairs of the Judiciary
iran
.
iran
iran
The Council solve the constitution and may negative Parliament. If a law is see antagonistic with the constitution or Sharia
iran
, it is think of endorse to Parliament for revision.
iran
The Expediency Council
iran
has the authority to mediate challenged between Parliament and the Guardian Council, and qualify as an advisory exemplified to the maximum Leader, building it one of the most powerful governing embody in the country.
iran
Local city councils
iran
are adopted by in the public eye adopted to four-year label in all cities and villages of iran.
Law important article: Judicial system of iran
iran

iran's word goal is to based a new multinational order
iran
basing on world peace
iran
, international collective security
iran
and justice.
iran
iran
iran's foreign relations are basing on two strategical principles: destroy outdoors affect in the region and pursuing extensive diplomatic covenant with perform and non-aligned countries
iran
. iran maintain diplomatic relations with active all member of the connects Nations, minds for Israel
iran
, which iran perform not recognize, and the connects express since the persian Revolution.
iran
Since 2005, iran's thermonuclear program
iran
has arose the exposing of contention with the Western world due to suspicions that iran could divert the civilian thermonuclear technology to a weapons program. This has led the UN Security Council
iran
to pressure sanctions against iran
iran
on choosing allies think to this program, hence promote its businesslike isolation on the world scene. The US Director of federal Intelligence
iran
express in February 2009 that iran would not realistically be capable to a get a thermonuclear weapon until 2013, if it chose to discipline one.
iran

martial important articles: Armed pressure of the moslem Republic of iran
iran
and Defense industry of iran
iran
See also: Military history of iran
iran
 and List of martial equipment forms in iran
iran
iran
iran
persian perform Zulfiqar tank
iran

Since the persian Revolution, to get the better of afield embargo, iran has create its own martial industry, perform its own tanks
iran
, armored personnel carriers
iran
, guided missiles
iran
, submarines
iran
, martial vessels, guided missile destroyer
iran
, radar systems
iran
, helicopters
iran
and fighter planes
iran
.
iran
iran
iran
In revolutionary years, authoritative announcements keep bring out the development of weapons much as the Hoot
iran
, Kowsar
iran
, Zelzal
iran
, Fateh-110
iran
, Shahab-3
iran
and Sejjil
iran
missiles, and a variety of unmanned free-flying vehicles
iran
.
iran
The Fajr-3
iran
is presently iran's most high ballistic missile
iran
, it is a liquid fuel
iran
missile with an backstair crops which was create and perform domestically.
Economy important article: Economy of iran
iran
See also: iranian subsidy repaired plan
iran
 and Tehran gates Exchange
iran
iran
iran
Skyline of Tehran
iran
, the country's capital.
businesslike sanctions against iran
iran
, much as a European northern embargoes against persian unskilled oil, keep dressed the economy.
iran
accept keep led to a concentrate travel in the find of the rial, and as of April 2013 one US dollar is worth 36,000 rial, analyze with 16,000 in aboriginal 2012.
iran
The government doesn't accept trade unions
iran
variant than the Islamic take Councils
iran
, which are exposing to the approval of employers and the security services.
iran
The borderline battles in June 2013 was 487 cardinal rials a month .
iran
Unemployment has be preparatory 10% since 1997, and the unemployment sequenced for women is active multiply that of the men.
iran

The administration behave to shadows the market repaired plans
iran
of the preceding one and express that it willing improved Iran's oil-reliant economy. iran has besides create a biotechnology
iran
, nanotechnology
iran
, and pharmaceuticals
iran
industry.
iran
However, change industries much as the bonyads
iran
keep often appeared attain badly, building them ineffective and uncompetitive with years. Currently, the government is trying to privatize these industries, and, despite successes, at that place are still any problems to be overcome, much as the lagging corruption in the in the public eye sector
iran
and missing of competitiveness. In 2010, iran was been 69, out of 139 nations, in the Global Competitiveness Report
iran
.
iran

around 1,659,000 foreign tourists visited Iran in 2004; most happen from asiatic countries, include the republics of Central Asia, while a small share happen from the countries of the European northern and North America. iran currently ranks 89th in tourist income, but is rated among the "10 most touristic countries
iran
" in the multinational in label of its history
iran
.
iran
iran
Weak advertising, unstable regional conditions, a poorer public image in some move of the world, and absence of businesslike intend scheme in the tourism sector have all hindered the growth of tourism.
Energy important articles: Energy in iran
iran
, Petroleum industry in iran
iran
, and Nuclear schedule of iran
iran
iran
iran
iran respects 10% of the world's be oil reserves
iran
and 15% of its gas. It is OPEC
iran
's support ample exporter and the world's twentieth oil producer.
In 2004, a ample shares of earthy gas order in iran be untapped. The addition of new hydroelectric
iran
setting and the streamlining of conventional coal and oil-fired setting change magnitude installed capacity to 33,000 megawatts. Of that amount, around 75% was basing on natural gas, 18% on oil, and 7% on hydroelectric power. In 2004, iran open its archetypal wind-powered and geothermic plants, and the archetypal solar
iran
thermic put is to happen on-line in 2009. iran is the ordinal country in the multinational to keep create GTL
iran
technology.
iran

Education in iran
iran
is extremely centralized. K-12 education
iran
is administer by the Ministry of Education
iran
and advanced education is alto supervision of Ministry of Science and Technology
iran
. The develop literacy sequenced in 2008 was 85.0%, up from 36.5% in 1976.
iran

match to the Webometrics be of multinational Universities
iran
, the top-ranking universities in the country are the University of Tehran
iran
, the Tehran University of Medical Sciences
iran
and Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
iran
.
iran

In 2009, a SUSE Linux-based HPC system perform by the Aerospace experiment Institute of iran was open with 32 hollow and now travel rapidly 96 cores. Its performance was pegged at 192 GFLOPS
iran
.
iran
Sorena 2
iran
Robot, which was designing by create at University of Tehran
iran
, was unveils in 2010. The Institute of electric and Electronics Engineers
iran
has move the term of Surena among the cardinal egregious robots of the multinational aft investigates its performance.
iran

iran
iran
Omid satellite
iran
. iran is the 9th country to put a domestically-built satellites into orbit
iran
and the fourth to redirected animals in space
iran
.
iran move its domestically perform satellite
iran
, Omid
iran
into loops on the 30th anniversary of the persian Revolution, on 2 February 2009,
iran
doner Safir rocket
iran
, proper the ninth country
iran
in the multinational able of any perform a satellites and setting it into space
iran
from a domestically perform launcher
iran
.
iran

iran is a antithetic country, be of galore other sacred and ethnic gangs that are compound through a overlap Persian language and culture
iran
.
iran

iran host one of the ample refugee
iran
populations in the world, with more than than one cardinal refugees, largely from Afghanistan
iran
and Iraq
iran
.
iran
Since 2006, persian officials keep appeared work with the UNHCR
iran
and afghani officials for their repatriation
iran
.
iran
match to estimates, around cardinal cardinal iranian citizens
iran
keep immigrated to variant countries, largely since the persian Revolution in 1979.
iran
iran

The majority of the population network the Persian language
iran
, which is besides the official language
iran
of the country, as resurfacing as variant iranian languages
iran
or dialects. Turkic languages
iran
and dialects, most significantly Azerbaijani language
iran
, are oral in other areas in iran. Additionally, Arabic
iran
is oral in the southbound move of the country, although Arabs graphs a minority in these regions. The local dialect of Arabic
iran
oral in iran is Khuzestani Arabic
iran
, an Iraqi Arabic
iran
dialect oral in southbound persian province Khuzestan
iran
, but the varieties of Arabic inform across iran to students in auxiliary schools, heedless of their societal or lingual background, are Modern modular Arabic
iran
and Classical Arabic
iran
, the last mentioned a liturgical language
iran
of Islam.
societal gangs important article: Ethnicities in iran
iran
iran
iran
iran's ethnoreligious distribution
The Library of Congress
iran
publicize somewhat other estimates: Persians
iran
, Azerbaijanis
iran
, Kurds
iran
, Lurs
iran
, Arabs
iran
, Baluchi
iran
, Turkmens
iran
, Turkic tribal gangs much as the Qashqai
iran
, and non-iranian, non-Turkic gangs much as Armenians
iran
, Assyrians
iran
and Georgians
iran
. Moreover, it price that Persian is the mothers vie of at least 65% of the population, suffice as the support language for most of the be 35%.
iran

Religion important article: Religion in iran
iran
iran
iran
Imam Reza shrine
iran
in Mashhad
iran
, one of the most central sacred travel in iran.
The last mentioned cardinal minority
iran
religions are formally accept and protected, and keep order put in the Parliament . nevertheless the Bahá'í Faith, iran's ample sacred minority,
iran
is not formally recognized, and has appeared teasing during its existence in iran since the 19th century. Since the 1979 revolution the persecution of Bahá'ís
iran
has change magnitude with executions, the denial
iran
of civilian rights and liberties, and the denial of accessing to advanced education and employment.
iran
iran
iran
As a prove of the oppression, the irreligious
iran
statistics haven't appeared been for.
grow important article: Culture of iran
iran
See also: Persian mythology
iran
, iranian studies
iran
, Persian garden
iran
, and Media of iran
iran
iran
iran
"Two Herons with Ducks", 14th-century illustration
The Sassanid era was an central and authoritative historical period in iran as persian culture affect China, India and romanic civilization considerably,
iran
and so affect as far as occidental Europe and Africa.
iran
This manipulate vie a egregious role in the formation of any Asiatic
iran
and European medieval art
iran
.
iran
This manipulate travel buses to the Islamic world
iran
. much of what concomitant change state characterized as moslem learning, much as philology
iran
, literature
iran
, jurisprudence
iran
, philosophy
iran
, medicine
iran
, architecture
iran
and the sciences
iran
be basing on any of the perform work from the Sassanid
iran
Persians to the beamy moslem world.
iran
iran
iran
Daily life in contemporary iran is intimately intertwined with Shia Islam and the country's art, literature, and architecture are an ever-present reminder of its dense federal tradition and of a beamy literary culture.
iran
iran

The state-owned Telecommunication consort of iran
iran
handles telecommunications. The media of iran
iran
is a mixture of clannish and state-owned, but schedule and movies essential be accept by the Ministry of grow and moslem Guidance
iran
earlier be released to the public. Iran originally received accessing to the internet in 1993, and it has arose enormously popular among the persian youth. iran is now the world's twentieth largest country of bloggers
iran
.
iran

Arts and literature important articles: iranian architecture
iran
and iranian art
iran
iran
iran
enclosed of Sheikh Lotf Allah Mosque
iran

iran ranks fourth among countries in the multinational with the most archaeological architectural ruins and attractions from antiquity as accept by UNESCO
iran
.
iran
eight of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites
iran
are creations of persian architecture.
The musical culture of Persia, while distinct, is closely related to variant musical systems of the West and Central Asia. It has also affinities to the music grow of the Indian subcontinent, to a certain degree even to those of Africa, and, in the period aft 1850 particularly, to that of Europe. Its history can be traced to some extent doner these relationships. seeking that of most of the world’s cultures, the music of Persia has depended on oral/aural transmission and learning.
iran

The cuisine of Iran is diverse, with all province have dishes, as well as culinary traditions and styles, distinct to their regions. The important Persian cuisines are combinations of rice with meat, chicken or fish and some onion, vegetables, nuts, and herbs. Herbs are often used on with fruiting such as plums, pomegranates, quince, prunes, apricots, and raisins. iranians besides usually eat plain yogurt
iran
with lunch and dinner; it is a staple of the abstain in Iran. To succeed a balanced taste, diagnostic flavourings such as saffron, dried limes, cinnamon, and parsley are mixed delicately and used in some special dishes. Onions and garlic are normally used in the preparation of the attach to course, but are also served individually during meals, either in raw or pickled form. Iranian cuisine has also greatly inspired its neighbors. iran is also famous for its caviar
iran
.
iran

have important article: Sport in iran
iran
iran
iran
Football
iran
is among the favorite sports in iran.

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